NUR 112 - Terms.txt

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TomWruble
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144643
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NUR 112 - Terms.txt
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2012-05-03 13:29:40
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Terms & Definitions
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  1. dehiscence
    Wound dehiscence is a surgical complication in which a wound breaks open along surgical suture. Risk factors are age, diabetes, obesity, poor knotting or grabbing of stitches, and trauma to the wound after surgery.

    Wound dehiscence can be caused by inadequate undermining (cutting the skin away from the underlying tissues) of the wound during surgery, excessive tension on the wound edges caused by lifting or straining, or the wound being located on a highly mobile or high tension area such as the back, shoulders or legs.[2] Individuals with Ehlers�Danlos syndrome also commonly experience wound dehiscence.[3] Risk factors can include any of the above as well as obesity, smoking, previous scarring, surgical error, cancer, chronic use of corticosteroids and increased abdominal pressure.
  2. Patent
    A "patent" airway is an open airway.
  3. Crohn's disease
    also known as regional enteritis, is a type of inflammatory bowel disease that may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus, causing a wide variety of symptoms. It primarily causes abdominal pain, diarrhea (which may be bloody if inflammation is at its worst), vomiting (can be continuous), or weight loss,[1][2][3] but may also cause complications outside the gastrointestinal tract such as skin rashes, arthritis, inflammation of the eye, tiredness, and lack of concentration.[1]

    Crohn's disease is caused by interactions between environmental, immunological and bacterial factors in genetically susceptible individuals.[4][5][6] This results in a chronic inflammatory disorder, in which the body's immune system attacks the gastrointestinal tract possibly directed at microbial antigens.[7][5]

    Crohn's disease has traditionally been described as an autoimmune disease, but recent investigators have described it as a disease of immune deficiency.
  4. Paralytic ileus
    a common side effect of some types of surgery, in these cases it is commonly called postsurgical ileus. It can also result from certain drugs and from various injuries and illnesses, i.e. acute pancreatitis. Paralytic ileus causes constipation and bloating. On listening to the abdomen with a stethoscope, no bowel sounds are heard because the bowel is inactive.

    A temporary paralysis of a portion of the intestines occurs typically after an abdominal surgery. Since the intestinal content of this portion is unable to move forward, food or drink should be avoided until peristaltic sound is heard from auscultation of the area where this portion lies.

    Gangrenous ileumIntestinal atony or paralysis may be caused by inhibitory neural reflexes, inflammation or other implication of neurohumoral peptides.
  5. Atelectavis
    Incentive spirometry is a type of broncial hygiene used in pneumonia, but also for post op patients. Its intent is to improve inspiratory muscle performance and prevent or reverse atelectasis (aveolar collapse). 5-10 breaths per session every hour.
  6. Psoriasis
    Psoriasis is an autoimmune disease that appears on the skin. It occurs when the immune system mistakes the skin cells as a pathogen, and sends out faulty signals that speed up the growth cycle of skin cells. Psoriasis is not contagious.[1] However, psoriasis has been linked to an increased risk of stroke, [2] and treating high blood lipid levels may lead to improvement.[3] There are five types of psoriasis: plaque, guttate, inverse, pustular and erythrodermic. The most common form, plaque psoriasis, is commonly seen as red and white hues of scaly patches appearing on the top first layer of the epidermis (skin). Some patients, though, have no dermatological symptoms.

    In plaque psoriasis, skin rapidly accumulates at these sites, which gives it a silvery-white appearance. Plaques frequently occur on the skin of the elbows and knees, but can affect any area, including the scalp, palms of hands and soles of feet, and genitals. In contrast to eczema, psoriasis is more likely to be found on the outer side of the joint.

    The disorder is a chronic recurring condition that varies in severity from minor localized patches to complete body coverage. Fingernails and toenails are frequently affected (psoriatic nail dystrophy) and can be seen as an isolated symptom. Psoriasis can also cause inflammation of the joints, which is known as psoriatic arthritis. Between 10-30% of all people with psoriasis also have psoriatic arthritis.[4][5]

    The cause of psoriasis is not fully understood, but it is believed to have a genetic component and local psoriatic changes can be triggered by an injury to the skin known as the Koebner phenomenon,[6] see Koebnerisin. Various environmental factors have been suggested as aggravating to psoriasis, including stress, withdrawal of systemic corticosteroid, as well as other environmental factors, but few have shown statistical significance.[7] There are many treatments available, but because of its chronic recurrent nature, psoriasis is a challenge to treat. Withdrawal of corticosteroids (topical steroid cream) can aggravate the condition due to the 'rebound effect' of corticosteroids.[8]
  7. xerosis
    dry skin
  8. pruritis
    itching
  9. Lichenification
    epidermal thickening characterized by visible and palpable thickening of the skin with accentuated skin markings
  10. Erythema
    redness - usually of the skin
  11. Urticaria
    Urticaria (from the Latin urtica, nettle (whence It. ortica, Sp. ortiga, Pg. urtiga, Fr. ortie) urere, to burn)[1] (or hives) is a kind of skin rash notable for pale red, raised, itchy bumps. Hives are frequently caused by allergic reactions; however, there are many non-allergic causes. Most cases of hives lasting less than six weeks (acute urticaria) are the result of an allergic trigger. Chronic urticaria (hives lasting longer than six weeks) is rarely due to an allergy.

    The majority of patients with chronic hives have an unknown (idiopathic) cause. Perhaps as many as 30�40% of patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria will, in fact, have an autoimmune cause. Acute viral infection is another common cause of acute urticaria (viral exanthem). Less common causes of hives include friction, pressure, temperature extremes, exercise, and sunlight.
  12. Thrombocytopenia
    (or thrombopenia) is a relative decrease of platelets in blood.

    A normal human platelet count ranges from 150,000 to 450,000 platelets per microlitre of blood.[1] These limits are determined by the 2.5th lower and upper percentile, so values outside this range do not necessarily indicate disease. One common definition of thrombocytopenia is a platelet count below 50,000 per microlitre.
  13. febrile
    Fever (also known as pyrexia[1]) is a common medical sign characterized by an elevation of temperature above the normal range of 36.5�37.5 �C (98�100 �F) due to an increase in the body temperature regulatory set-point.[2] This increase in set-point triggers increased muscle tone and shivering.
  14. Agonist
    An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor of a cell and triggers a response by that cell. Agonists often mimic the action of a naturally occurring substance. Whereas an agonist causes an action, an antagonist blocks the action of the agonist and an inverse agonist causes an action opposite to that of the agonist.
  15. AEDs
    Anti epileptic drugs or anticonvulsives. This is one class of drugs that can be used as a Adjuvant Analgesic, i.e. Thugh not true analgesics, they can relieve pain alone or in conbination with analgesics and the can potentiate the the effectiveness of an analgesic.
  16. Neurolysis
    Permanent nrve destruction. In a clinical setting it might be used when pain is intractable and the nerve root or roots associated with the pain are injeced with a chemical (phenol or alcohol), which permanently destroys their transmit ability.
  17. Gastroparesis
    also called delayed gastric emptying, is a medical condition consisting of a paresis (partial paralysis) of the stomach, resulting in food remaining in the stomach for a longer period of time than normal. Normally, the stomach contracts to move food down into the small intestine for digestion. The vagus nerve controls these contractions. Gastroparesis may occur when the vagus nerve is damaged and the muscles of the stomach and intestines do not work normally. Food then moves slowly or stops moving through the digestive tract
  18. Periosteum
    is a membrane that lines the outer surface of all bones,[1] except at the joints of long bones.[2] Endosteum lines the inner surface of all bones.

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