Psy1010

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Psy1010
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2012-03-29 21:21:17
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  1. The sicentific study of the mind, brain, and behavior.
    Williams James (1842-1910) is regarded as the founder of American Psychology, once described psychology as a "Nasty Little" Subject
    Psychology
  2. Rungs on a ladder of explanation, with lower levels tied most closely to biological influences and higher levels tied most closely to social influences.
    Levels of explanation
  3. Caused by many factors.
    Multiply determined
  4. Explanations that try to account for complex behaviors in terms of only a single cause.
    Single-variable explanations
  5. Variations among people in their thinking emotion and behavior.
    Individual Differences
  6. Belief that we see the world precisely as it is.
    Naive Realism
  7. Tendency to seek out evidence that supports our hypotheses and neglect or distort evidence that contradicts them.
    Confirmation Bias
  8. Tendency to stick to our initial beliefs even when evidence contradicts them.
    Belief Perseverance
  9. Explanations for a large number of findings in the natural world.
    Scientific Theory
  10. Testable prediction derived from a sientific theory
    Hypotheses
  11. A theory that explains one epecific event.
    Misconception 1
  12. A theory is just an educated Guess
    Misconception 2
  13. _____ is a set of claims thats sees scientific but isnt
    pseudoscience
  14. ______ is the tendency to perceive meaningful connections among urelated phenomena.
    Apophenia
  15. Assertions about the world that are not testable.
    Metaphysical claims
  16. Approach of evaluating all claims with an open mind but insisting on persuasive evidence before accepting them.
    Science Skepticism
  17. Set of skills for evatuating all claims in an open-minded and careful fashion.
    Critical Thinking
  18. Error of assuming that because one thing is associated with another, it must cause the other
    Corration-causing fallacy
  19. Anything that can vary
    Variable
  20. Capable of being disproved
    Falsifiable
  21. What are the six key principles of scientific thinking?
    • 1)Rulling out rival hypotheses.
    • 2)Correlation-causation
    • 3)Falsifiability
    • 4) Replicability
    • 5)Extraordinary claims requires extraordinary evidence.
    • 6)Occam's Razor
  22. Capable of being disaproved.
    Falsifiable
  23. _____ means that a study 's findings can be duplicated consistently.
    Replicability
  24. Method by which trained observes carefully reflect and report on their mental experiences.
    Introspection
  25. _____ aimed to identify the basic elements of psychological experience and was faunded by E. B. Titchener.
    Structuralism
  26. ______ is aimed to understandthe adaptive purposes of psychological characteristics and founded by William James; influenced by Charles Darwin.
    Functionalism
  27. ______ focuses on uncovering the general laws of learning by looking at observable behavior.
    John B. Watson and B. F. Skinner.
    Behaviorism
  28. _____ is the mental procesess involved in different aspects of thinking.
    Jean Piaget; Ulric Neisser
    Cognition
  29. ____ was founded by Sigmund Freud, and focuses on internal psychological processes of which we are unaware.
    Psychoanalysis

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