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what is imagery?
uses all of the senses to create an experience or visual image in the mind
factors that moderate the effectiveness of mental practice? (3)
- skill level of athlete
- cognitive componant of the skill
- time factors and mental practice
what is skill level of athlete?
advanced performers benefit from mental practice to a greater extent than beginners
what is cognitive componant of the skill?
require thinking and planning
what are time factors and mental practice?
mental practice prior to physical practice is most effective
more important mental or physical practice?
theories on imagery (3)
- symbolic learning
- functional equivelence hypothesis
what is psychomuscular theory?
subliminal neuromuscular patterns identical to patterns during actual movement
what is symbolic learning theory?
actions planned in advance
what is functional equivelence hypothesis?
matched mental imaged actions and actual physical execution
what are the 4 W's of sport imagery?
- where - imagery occurs
- when - imagery occurs
- what- is being imaged
- why- what the purpose
where does imagery take place?
during training or practice
when does imagery take place?
prior to competition
what is being imaged by the athlete?
images and content
what is being imaged by the athlete in a postive way?
positive imagery is facilitative in nature and involves imaging a successful execution of a skill
what is being imaged by the athlete in a negative way?
negative imagery is debiltative in nature and involves imaging unsuccessful execution of a skill
what is the why of imagery?
describing the function
what is imagery perspective? (2)
- internal perspective
- external perspective
what is internal perspective?
- from within own body
what is external perspective?
imagine self to be outside the body
what is kinesthetic sensory mode?
- sensitivity to a greater degree than external imagery
- ex. touch
what is visual sensory mode?
external imagery utilizes the visual mode
what are the other sensory modes?
what do cognitive behavioral intervention programs do?
what is hypnosis?
condition of heightened acceptance of suggestions or hyper-suggestibility
What to do to achieve hypnotic state
- prepare subject
- induction phase
- hypnotic phase
- waking up
- post-hypnotic phase
what is self-hypnosis?
hypnotizing self with help by therapist
what can hypnosis do for the athlete?
enhance and heighten suggestibilty that may lead to adjustments of facilitative performance
what is mental toughness?
multifacted construct made up of multiple key componants such as values attitudes that help the althlete thrive through positive and negative challenges
what three phases are involved with self regulation model?
what is forethought phase?
goal setting, strategy and self efficacy
what is performance phase?
strategy use, self monitoring, imagery, attention focusing
what is the self-reflective phase?
self evaluation, outcome attribution, regulating self
what is psychological methods?
practices that lead to psychological skill (goal setting, imagery)
what is psychological skill?
learned or innate characteristics of the athlete that make it possible or even likely that she will succeed in sport (anxiety control)
what are the three types of sport psychologists?
what would a school not employ a sport psychologist?
- not necessary
- to much money
who is the client?
what are settings is sport psychology used?
what is agression?
- goal to inflict bodily harm on another person
- reasonable expectation of success
what are some behaviors that are not acts of aggression?
- violence on inanimate object
- unintentional injury
- no chance for target to be injured
basic kinds of aggression (negative)
what is assertive behavior?
- no intent to harm
- unusual energy expenditure and effort
what is hostile aggression?
- intent to harm
- goal to harm
what is instrumental aggression?
- intent to harm
- goal to win
- no anger
- ex. football
what is physical harm?
goal to physically harm another person
what is verbal or emotional harm?
goal to emotionally or physiocologically harm another person
what is relational harm?
goal to harm another person through relationships (social outcast)
what is instinct theory?
- aggression is an inborn drive
- sports are an acceptable outlet
- aggression results do to purging of pent up anger known as catharsis
what is catharsis?
to purge or clense tensions
what is social learning theory?
- aggression is a function of learning
- learned aggression = more aggression
what is reformulated frustration aggression theory?
- frustrating event creates a readiness for aggression
- certain stimuli present
- aggression is a response to frustration of cathartic
what is Bredemiers theory of moral reasoning and aggression?
individuals willingness to engage in aggression is related to his stage of moral reasoning
what are the three stages of moral development?
- pre-conventional stage
- conventional stage
- post-conventional stage
what is pre conventional stage?
- individual concerned with awards, punishment and welfare
- ages: 2-8 years
what is conventional stage?
- individual concerned with group or team norms
- ages: 8- 16 years
what is post-conventional stage?
- individual guided by moral principles ( athlete less likely to engage in aggressive behavior)
- ages: 16-adult
what is the catharsis effect?
a release or purging of pent-up emotion and frustration
what is the false consensus effect?
false belief about the willingness of other fans to particpate in the acts of violence
what is fan identification?
psychological connection that individuals have with their team
what fans would participate in violence?
young males, travel in packs, history of fighting, react impulsively
what the effects of aggression in performance?
true aggression should not result in better performance because it should be penalized
what effects of assertiveness have on performance?
important for team success
situational factors that might contribute to aggression ?
- environmental temperature
- fear of retaliation
- coach characteristics
what reduces aggression in sport?
- punishing aggression and violence by athletes
- punish aggression and violence by fans
what decreases aggression and violence by athletes?
- role models
- severe penalties
what decreases aggression and violence by fans?
- limit sale of alcohol
- athletic events promoted for families
what is social facilitation?
notion that the presence of an audience can facilitate performance
what is Zajonc’s model of social facilitation?
- based on drive theory
- increased arousal will facilitate performance of skilled athletes
what is the flaw of the Zajonc’s model?
the presence of the audience increases arousal
where is there a home court advantage?
- functional assertive behavior
- fan support
what is functional assertive behavior?
- playing better on the home court
- positive energy
what is dysfunctional assertive behavior?
- to aroused
- visiting team asserts themselves dysfunctional way
what is the visiting team disadvantage?
- less expectance from team
- pressure from audience
when is the home court a disadvantage to the home team?
- playing for an expectant audience
- self attention and pressing on the athlete
- home team feels pressure if losing on home court
what is self attention?
presence of supportive audience may have the effect of increasing the cost of not winning
what are some audience characteristics that lead to home field advantage?
crowd size, crowd hostility, favor home team
what is crowd hostlity?
- related to crowd density and intimacy is the hostilty of the home crowd
- people feed off each other and get louder
how does team quality effect the home court advantage?
- better for the better team
- poorer team does better when away
what is the players perception of the home court advantage?
advantage + crowd support, familiar settings, more confident
what is self presentation effects in sports?
way people monitor and control how they are percieved by other people
what is self handicapping?
- if performance is poor = due to missing practice
- if performance is good= outstanding performance even though sick
what is the definition of self handicapping?
preplanned proactive use of effort, excuses in order to protect self-esteem
what is the down fall of self handicapping?
less likely to value hard work, effort, long term dedication
what is team cohesion?
group to stick together and remain united in pursuit and objectives
what is task cohesion?
members of a team work together to achieve a specific and identifiable goal
what is social cohesion?
members of a team like each other and enjoy personal satisfactions from being members of the team
what is a sociogram?
team members indicate how they feel about other teammates
what questionnaire is used for youth sports?
youth sport environment questionnaire developed to measure task and social team cohesion
what are research determinants of team cohesion?
- personal satisfaction
- communication between teammates
- dyadic self-determination
what is personal satisfaction?
most important that the team is satisfied
who is communication between team members necessary for?
what dyadic self determination?
self determination between the two members of the dyadic team
what two ways does the casual relationship go?
- team cohesion
- team performance
who goes along it future participation?
athletes who belong cohesive teams
what is team stability?
team high in team cohesion are more likely to remain together
what is homogeneity of team cohesion?
high levels of team cohesion among both starters and nonstarters
what are the distributive effects of self-handicapping?
disrupting influence on athletes preparation of future competition
what does team cohesion lead to?
- positive mood
- anxiety that is facilitative
what develops team cohesion?
what is the process of team cohesion? 4 steps
what is forming?
just joining, no conflict, learn how to approch the goals, supervisor needs to be direct
what is storming?
problems arise, teams can get stuck and can be destructive, get away from cliques
what is norming?
have one goal, team cohesion
what is performing?
high performance level, team cohesion, common goal
what is team building?
promotion of increased sense of unity and cohesiveness enable team function
what is indirect intervention approach?
sport psychologist teaches coaches and managers for team building principles