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The startle response is a system also known as what?
reticular activating system
What is a fixed-action pattern?
- innate behavioral response to specific patterns of stimulation (releaser) in the environment.
- An example is the swimming action of fish
Can circadian rythyms be modified by external factors?
- Yes, sleep patterns can be changed by dark and light
- Internal control of salivating while eating compared to external of being hungry when a clock rings
The capacity for learning adaptive responses is closely correlated with what?
degree of neurologic development
What is habituation?
decreased responsiveness to a repeated stimulation
What is another name for classical conditioning and what is it?
- Pavlovian conditioning
- a conditioned reflex where a nuetral stimulus eventually elicits a conditioned response
What is psuedoconditioning?
When someone thinks they're using a nuetral stimulus and it's really not
What is operant or instrumental conditioning?
conditioning responses to stimuli with the use of reward or reinforcement
Who is B.F. Skinner?
First demonstrated principles of operant or instrumental conditioning
How does negative reinforcement compare to punishment?
- Negative reinforcement: When an action results in lack of a reward
- Punishment: When action results in punishment
What is habit family hierarchy?
When there are many different results to a certain stimulus, an order is created on how we result to that stimulus based on past experience.
How does stimulus generalization compare to stimulus discrimination?
- Stimulus generalization: response to similiar, but not identical stimulus
- Stimulus discrimination: response to identical or extremely close stimulus
What is imprinting?
When a behavior is "stamped in" during a critical period, usually right after birth (Konrad Lorenz)
What are the different types of behavioral displays?
Reproductive, agonistic, antagonistic
What is the difference between pecking order and territoriality?
- Pecking order: a dominant memeber of the species will prevail over a subordinate one.
- Territoriality: distribution and defense of a piece of land
What are the two types of pheromones and their purpose?
- Releaser: reversible behavioral change (mating, alarm, toxic defense)
- Primer: long term behavioral changes (estrous cycle in females)