If reticulocytes are high u have regenerative anemia (rbc are larger)
If reciulocytes are lower than normal u have non regenerative anemia
If u have chronic renal failure, why r they anemic erthrpoietin. Kidneys aren't producing it.
chromic - color
high is hyperchromic
normal mcv is normacidic
high mcv is macrocidic
microcidic anemia - lower than normal color MCV
An increase in either RBC count, the total hemoglobin, and or hematocrit.
Bad because blood should have a certain balance. RBC's go into body parts. like molasses.
Polycythemica Results in
sludging- increased blood viscosity and inhibits proper blood flow.
Maybe absolute or relative
Symptoms for Polycythemia Vera ( a cancer)
Hematemesis (vomiting of blood) and hematachezia (Blood in stool)
(RBC are being squeezed into brain bladder)
Diagnosis for Polycythemia
High PCV and RBC parameters
Bone marrow is overproducing RBC
Treatment for polycythemia
Chemotherapy (hydroxyurea) chemo drug
# RBC are actually increased
Absolute Primary Polycythemia
also known as
Polycythemia Rubra Vera
A neoplastic condition where the bone marrow increases the production of all cell lines, but mostly RBC's
Decreased erythropioten (hormones secreted by the kidneys) levels
Rare condition in dogs, cats and cattle
Secondary Polycythemia (absolute) develops in response to what
Develops in response to hypoxemia (reduction of oxygen) and an increase in erythropoietin (Hormones secreted by kidneys) stimulation
Seen when animals move to higher elevations
Any condition which decreases blood flow to the kidneys Decreased blood flow to the kidney is interpreted as hypoxemia and stimulates the release of erythropoietin
Conditions such as heart failure and renal arterial thrombosis (blood clotting)
Red Cell Storage Pools
What percentage is not circulating
where are they stored
rbc production takes how many days
30-40% of rbc are not circulating: they are held in reserve in the bone marrow and spleen
These reserves helo the body respond quickly to acute needs sonce RBc production in the bone marrow takes 3-6 days.
Premature release of RBC from these storage pools can result in an absolute polycythemia
what is the cause of Relative Polycythemia
Most common cause is dehydration
what happens to the RBC in Relative Polycythemia
the actual total body mass of RBCs remains the same, but there is a decrease in the plasma level. TP is normal.
Decrease in the fluid part of the blood
Common in any condition where there is loss of body fluids, dehydration, or shift in fluid distribution.
Fear, exercise, excitement, strange surroundings, causes release of epinephrine from adrenal medulla (fright or flight)
Mobilization of cells from marginal pool only (no left Shift)
Transient 20- 30 min
Only in healthy animals
the reproduction or multiplication of similar forms, especially of cells
Neutrophilia induced by tissue demand for phagocytic function
The magnitude of inflammatory neutrophilia is determined by the balance between the rates of bone marrow release and tissue emigration. If the rate of bone marrow release exceeds the rate of emigration excee3ds the bone marrow release rate neutrophila occurs.
Generally results in a left shift.
Regenerative left shift
if mature cells continue to outnumber immature cells.
Mature neutophils outnumber bands , and are elevated or normal.
Degenerative left shift
If immature cells start to outnumber mature cells, there is a left shift without a neutrophilia.
Excessive neutrophil consumption → bands and/or less mature forms outnumber mature neutrophils.
Neutropenia is the decrease in
Causes for neutropenia
caused by overwhelming tissue demand for phagocytes (infection)
Neutropenia is casued by granulopoietic hypoplasia (reduced production neutropenia)
Sequestration neutropenia (shock)
Mechanisms of neutropenia
Neutropenia caused by overwhemlming tissue damand for phagocytes.
Neutropenia is a marked decrease in the number of neutrophils.
Transit time in the bloodstream markedly reduced
Large number of immature neutrophils
Seen in peracute pyogenic bacterial infections (peritonitis, bovine mastitis, aspiration pnemonia) and in some viral diseases (cancer Distemper and Infectious Hepatitis)
Neutropenia caused by granulopoietic hypoplasia (reduced production neutropenia)
Diminished bone marrow and release
Occurrence of immature neutrophils in the blood stream is variable.
Seen in infections (FIP, Toxoplasmosis, Canine Erhlichiosis) Seen in intoxication (cancer Chemotherapy)
May be genetic (grey collie neutropenia)
cause of Sequestration Neutropenia
Neutropenia suddenly and transiently occurs because the neutrophils marginate
Causes include anaphylactic shick and endotoxemia
What is Lymphocytosis
an increase in circulating lymphocytes
Mechanisms of Lymphocytosis
Physiologic (epinephrine-induced) lymphocytosis
Lymphosarcoma and or leukemia virus infection
Enlargement of lymph nodes do not necessarily cause a corresponding change in blood lymphocyte count
a decrease in circulating lymphocytes
Stress and steroid related
Loss of lymphatic fluid (chylothorax- loss into the thoracic cavity)
Congenital T-cell Immunodeficiency
Increase in circulating Monocytes
Stress and steroid related
A decrease in circulating monocytes
seen in pancytopenic conditions
Not generally clinical significant in standard leukograms
( a tabulation of the leukocytes present in a blood sample)
An increase in circulating Eosinophils
Eosinophilia- Allergin reaction or parasite
Parasitism in which sensitization has occured, or where host tissue -parasite contact is lond and intimate.
Seen in specific eosinophilic Granuloma Complex in cats (excessive Eosinophils)
Immediate hypersensitivity disorders
Decrease in circulating eosinophils
Stress and steroid related
All pancytopenic conditions
The Stress Leukogram
Increased total WBC (15,000-35,000)
Neutrophilia No left Shift
The Inflammatory Leukogram
Increased Total WBC (20,000- 35,000)
Neutrophilia with significant left shift and toxic neutrophils.
Eosinophenia (may be diseased-stress related)
Generally a monocyte (depending on type of disease)
What is ACT?
Activated coagulation time (ACT) of whole blood in normal dogs
Average time is 77.5 seconds
PROTOCOL Dispense 2ml of freshly drawn whole blood into each of three siliceous earth vacutainers (Becton Dickinson) and commence timing immediately. Jugular venupuncture is recommended to minimise the delay between sampling and commencing timing. Gently invert each tube five times. Tilt each tube gently at 10 second intervals and observe the blood as it spreads along the length of the tube. The ACT is the mean time taken to the appearance of the first unmistakable clot in each of the three tubes (this precedes the formation of a solid clot involving the whole sample).
Prothrombin time (PT)
is a blood test that measures how long it takes blood to clot