Psych-155-EXAM2

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Author:
teknevo
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144734
Filename:
Psych-155-EXAM2
Updated:
2012-04-02 22:33:20
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Chapter2
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Schedules and Theories of Reinforcement
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  1. Schedule of Reinforcement
    Response requirement that must be met to obtain reinforcement
  2. Continuos Reinforcement Schedule
    One in which each response is reinforced
  3. Intermittent (or partial) reinforcement schedule
    • One in which only some responses are reinforced
    • -Fixed Ratio
    • -Variable Ratio
    • -Fixed Interval
    • -Variable Interval
  4. Fixed Ratio (FR) Schedule
    Reinforcement is contingent upon a fixed, predictable number of responses.
  5. Post-Reinforcement Pause
    A short pause after a reinforcement
  6. Dense/Rich
    Schedules in which the reinforcer is easily obtained
  7. Lean
    Schedules in which the reinforcer is difficult to obtain
  8. Ratio Strain (burnout)
    A disruption in responding due to an overly demanding response requirement
  9. Variable Ratio (VR) Schedule
    Reinforcement is contingent upon a varying, unpredictable number of responses

    -generally produce a high and steady rate of response with little or no postreinforcement pause
  10. Break-and-Run
    A short break follwed by a steady run of responses
  11. Fixed Interval (F1) Schedule
    Reinforcement is contingent upon the first response after a fixed, predictable period of time (Develops a Scallop)
  12. Variable Interval (VI) Schedule
    Reinforcement is contingent upon the first response after a varying, un
  13. Response Contingent (Ratio)
    It depends entirely on the number of responses emitted
  14. Time Contingent (Interval)
  15. Duration Schedules
    Reinforcement is contingent on performing a behavior continuously throughout a period of time
  16. Fixed Duration (FD) Schedule
    Behavior must be performed continuously for a fixed, predictable period of time
  17. Variable Duration (VD) Schedule
    Behavior must be performed continuously for a varying, unpredictable period of time.
  18. Response Rate Schedule
    Reinforcement is directly contingent upon the organism's rate of response
  19. Differential Reinforcement of High Rates (DRH)
    Reinforcement is contingent upon emitting at least a certain number of responses in a certain period of time
  20. Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates (DRL)
    Minimum amount of time must pass between each response before the reinforcer will be delivered
  21. Differential Reinforcement of Paced Responding (DRP)
    Reinforcement is contingent upon emitting a series of responses at a set rate
  22. Noncontingent Schedule of Reinforcement
    Reinforcer is delivered independetly of any response

    • -Fixed Time (FT) Schedule
    • -Variable Time (VT) Schedule
  23. Fixed Time (FT) Schedule
    Reinforcer is delivered following a fixed, predictable period of time, regardless of the organisms behavior
  24. Variable Time (VT) Schedule
    Reinforcer is delivered following a varying, unpredictable period of time, regardless of the organims behavior
  25. Adjunctive Behavior
    Innate tendencies, fidgeting behaviors that are elicited during periods of waiting
  26. Unconditional Positive Regard
    Refers to the love, respect, and acceptance that one receives from significant others, regardless of ones behavior
  27. Complex Schedule
    Consist of a combination of two or more simple schedules.

    • -Conjunctive Schedule
    • -Adjusting Schedule
    • -Chained Schedule
  28. Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible Behavior (DRI)
    Used to reduce a frequent behavior without punishing it by reinforcing an incompatible response
  29. Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior (DRO)
    An instrumental conditioning procedure in which a positive reinforcer is periodically delivered only if the participant does something other than the target response.
  30. Conjunctive Schedule
    Two or more simple schedules must be met before a reinforcers is delivered
  31. Adjusting Schedules
    Response requirement changes as a function of the organisms performance while responding for the previous reinforcer
  32. Chained Schedules
    Consist of a sequence of two or more simple schedules, each of which has its own SD and the last of which results in a terminal reinforcer
  33. Goal Gradient Effect
    An increase in the stranght and/or efficiency of responding as one draws near to the goal
  34. Premack Principle
    States that a high-probability behavior can be used to reinforce a low-probability behavior
  35. Response Deprivation Hypothesis
    States that a behavior can serve as a reinforcer when (1) access tot he behavior is restricted and (2) its frequency theraby falls below its preferred level of occurence
  36. Behavioral Bliss Point Approach
    An organisms with free access to alternative activities will distribute its behavior in such a way as to maximize overall reinfrocement

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