Psy 401 Exam 2

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  1. Myelination and its effect on cognitive
    • the process by which the nerve cells are covered and insulated with a layer of fat cells, which increases the speed at which
    • information travels through the nervous system
  2. How does reaction time change with age?
    It increases
  3. What does the “just right” or “just so” phenomenon refer to?
    • Children 3-6
    • Peaks at age 3 and fades by 6
    • parents should be patient until it fades
    • Ex: must have 4 ice cubes
  4. Understand there is a trend to increasing obesity among
    children and that the causes are from the various levels of ecology
    (individual, family, school, societal values, media, etc.)
    • Technology (entertainment issedentary)
    • Economy
    • Food in schools= bad habits formed
    • Fast food is cheap and easyPares are not as strict and nostay at home moms
    • Less education or knowledge aboutnutrition
    • Health care system
    • Mental health
    • Content of food has changed
  5. Primary, secondary and tertiary prevention
    • Primary: Actions that changeoverall background conditions to prevent some unwanted even, circumstance or illness Motorcycle helmet law
    • Secondary: actions that avert harmfor a group known to be at high riskChildren in low SES, or parentswith diabetes
    • Tertiary: actions that are takenafter an unwanted event circumstance or illness has occurred that is aimed atreducing the harm
  6. Know the Piagetian stages that apply to the play years and
    the school years
    • 1-2 years: sensorimotor- objectpermanence
    • 2-6 years: preoperational-imagination and language
    • 6-11: concrete operational-conservation, number classification
  7. Conservation and what age the concept is typically acquired
    Age 6, understanding that something is the same despite a change in appearance
  8. Characteristics of Preoperational thought: Centration, focus
    on appearance, Egocentrism, static reasoning, and irreversibility
    Centration: focusing on one aspect of a situation

    Focus on Appearance: focusing only on what is apparent

    Egocentrism: thinking about the world from their own perspective

    Static reasoning: assuming the world is unchanging

    Irreversibility: nothing can be undone
  9. Social learning
    people learn within a social context and is facilitated through such concepts as modeling and observational learning
  10. Theory of cognitive development
    Cognitivedevelopment occurs in a sociocultural context that influences the form it takes
  11. Guided participation
    adult-child interactions in which children’s cognitions and modes of thinking are shaped as they participate with or observe adults engaged in culturally relevant activities
  12. Zone of proximal development
    range of tasks that are too complex to be mastered alone but can be accomplished with guidance and encouragement from a more skillful partner
  13. Scaffolding
    the expert participant carefully tailors their support to the novice learner to assure their understanding
  14. Private speech
    A child’s nonsocial utterances
  15. What are differences in Vygotsky and Piaget’s
    Vygotsky places more emphasis on culture

    Vygotsky places considerable more emphasis on social factors

    Vygotsky places more emphasis on the role of language
  16. Theory of Mind
    A child’s first cognitiveunderstanding that other people have different beliefs and perspective

    Age 4

    Young children are oftern terrible at fooling us. They can’t play hide and seek well
  17. Critical period
    represent a time when a particular part of the body is most easily influenced or vulnerable to the lack of stimulation or to environmental effects

    if an infant does not see light during the first few months of life (at least 6 months), nerves will degenerate and eventually die
  18. Sensitive period
    opportunity for certain types of learning, that is less precise and a longer time period compared to critical period

    • skills acquired during the sensitive period makes the individual better than another who did not acquire
    • those skills then
  19. Fast mapping
    • the act of learning
    • a new concept after limited exposure
  20. Overregularization
    Children extend regular grammatical patterns to irregular words, resulting in overregularizations like comed
  21. Types of play
    Independent: ideal choice of play until age 2

    Onlooker play: teaches child how to act when they are ready to join (watching older kids)

    Solitary play: solo play, time for them to figure things out on their own

    Parallel play: playing side by side but not together

    Associative play: around 3 of 4, playing in a group but doing own thing

    Competitive play: by 5, real play dates and understanding of rules
  22. What is meant by child-directed and teacher-directed early
    education? Know the main differences
    Child directed: children choose what activities they want to do and when to do them. This type of program is fairly unstructured, and children learn at their own paces, usually playing by themselves or in small groups.

    • Teacher-directed: classrooms have
    • a more structured feel, as teachers tell the children what activities to do and
    • when they will do them. All of the students are expected to follow a set
    • schedule of activities that the teacher has planned, so they all do the same
    • thing at the same time.
  23. Self-esteem and self-concept
    Self-esteem: he extent to which we like accept or approve of ourselves or how much we value ourselves

    Self-concept: how we think about and evaluate ourselves
  24. Be able to describe/recognize Baumrind’s three patterns of
    Parent parenting, kids reaction, education at parenting, culture, age, presence of other kids, beliefs, emotional well-being, general education and SES
  25. What influences parenting behavior?
    Parent parenting, kids reaction, education at parenting, culture, age, presence of other kids, beliefs, emotional well-being, general education and SES
  26. What point did Sandra Scarr make about parenting (as covered
    in class)?
    Parents should be given less credit for kids who turn out great and blamed less for kids who don’t.
  27. Theories of gender development covered in class: gender
    schema & social learning; understand how
    Gender schema: (cognitive) match what they see

    Social learning: (behavioral) rewarded or punished
  28. How does the speed of cognitive processing change as kids
    move into school years?
    It gets quicker
  29. Automization and overlearning
    Automization: the ability to do things without occupying the mind with the low-level details required

    Overlearning: newly acquired skills should be practiced well beyond the point of initial mastery
  30. Concrete operations
    7-11 years old

    children begin thinking logically about concrete events, but have difficulty understanding abstract or hypothetical concepts
  31. Metacognition
    Knowing about knowing or thinking about thinking
  32. IQ
    Test is designed to measure intellectual aptitude or ability to learn in school
  33. Flynn effect
    Describes how all over the world IQ test scores increase over time

    Younger people perform better than older generations
  34. What was Binet’s purpose in creating an intelligence test
    for French children? What is the name of the version of the test in the U.S.?
    • To see what students in Paris were
    • going to excel in or needed special help with

    Stanford–Binet test
  35. What is the average IQ score?
  36. How is an IQ score found?
    Mental age/chronological age
  37. Who created the WAIS, WISC, and WPPSI? (know that these are
    intelligence tests)
    David Wechsler
  38. Know the various influences on IQ as covered in class (at
    least one from each category)
    Genetics: studies of twins, family members, and adopted children together support the idea that there is a significant genetic contribution to intelligence

    Enviornmental: lead exposure leads to lower scores

    Schooling: increased schooling is related to higher intelligence scores

    Culture: translation
  39. What are IQ tests used for?
    • Education and psychology:
    • identifying gifted children, identifying children with mental retardation, and learning disability assessment.
  40. Know the IQ cut offs for the MR, slow learner, average, and
    gifted range of intelligence
    MR: 50 and below

    Slow learner: 70-84

    Average: 85-114

    Gifted:130-144, genius 145+
  41. What are the two other theories of intelligence
    described in your text? Know who developed these theories and a basic
    definition of each.
    • Robert Sternberg: triarchic theory
    • of intelligence (analytical, creative, and practical)

    • Howard Gardner: multiple
    • intelligences (8)
  42. ADHD
    • great difficulty concentrating, inattentive,
    • impulsive, overactive
  43. Autism
    marked impairment in nonverbal communication, delayed speech development, lacks social reciprocity with peers, inflexible adherence to routines and rituals, motor mannerisms: preoccupation with small details of toys or objects
  44. Asperger’s
    similar to autism without speech delay
  45. Learning Disabilities
    a marked delay in a particular area of learning that is not caused by an apparent physical disability, by mental retardation, or by an unusually stressful home environment
  46. Empathy
    When an individual feels the same emotions as another person
  47. Know the difference between Phonics and Whole language?
    (so-called, reading wars)
    Phonics is sounding out, whole language is site look-say
  48. What are three values important to school-aged children
    Protect friends

    • Don’t tell adults what is
    • happening

    • Don’t be too different from you
    • peers
  49. Level 1: preconventional moral
    Stage 1: Avoid punishment, what must I do to avoid punishment? What can I do to force my will upon others?

    Stage 2: Gain rewards, What’s in it for me? What must I do to avoid pain, gain pleasure?
  50. Level 2: conventional moral
    Stage 3: “good girl” and “good boy” orientation, What Must I do to be seen as a good boy/girl

    Stage 4: “Law and order”, What if everyone did that?
  51. Level 3: postconventional moral
    Stage 5: social contract, what is the just thing to do given all the circumstances? What will bring the most good to the largest number of people?

    Stage 6: universal ethical principles, what will fost life in its fullest for all living beings? What is justice for all?
  52. Bully
    • Repeated systematic efforts to
    • inflict harm through physical, verbal, or social attack on a weaker person
  53. Bully-victim
    The person getting bullied
  54. What are the benefits and drawbacks of social conformity?
    Benefits: allows us to feel a part of a group, provides cohesiveness and a sense of security

    Drawbacks: doesn’t allow people to be unique, those who go against are not favored
  55. What is the role of friendship for children’s emotional
    well-being? How does it change from preschool to school years (see p. 339)
    Friendships help children develop emotionally and morally. In interacting with friends, children learn many social skills, such as how to communicate, cooperate, and solve problems

    They choose their friends, rather than their playmates being chosen for them
  56. How is self-esteem different in preschoolers and school-aged
    The older they get the more of a factor it becomes
  57. How did Olweus try to stop bullying? (understand that
    essentially his intervention involved intervening at many ecological levels)
    • OBPP is not a curriculum, but a program that
    • deals with bullying at the school
    • wide, classroom, individual, and community levels
  58. Deviancy training
    • occurs when peers reinforce each other for delinquent or aggressive talk or behavior, and as a result, problem
    • behavior increases
  59. Social comparison
    when we compare themselves to others who are worse off that ourselves
  60. How is social acceptance protective for children? In the U.S.
    what qualities lead to social acceptance? How do children choose friends?
    If you are well liked than you are more liked, have a higher self esteem, protected from bullying

    Being smart, athletic, or rich

    By what they have in common
  61. Social cognition
    the processes by which people come to understand others
  62. Effortful control
    the ability to regulate one's emotions and actions through effort, not simply through natural inclination
Card Set:
Psy 401 Exam 2
2012-03-30 08:29:22
Psychology Life Span Development

Exam 2 Study Guide
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