renal/urology

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Author:
joyjohnson
ID:
144740
Filename:
renal/urology
Updated:
2012-03-30 07:17:48
Tags:
renal urology
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Description:
renal/urology
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  1. 2 kidneys
    • left is longer
    • closer to midline
    • sits higher than right one

    • right kidney
    • lowered by the liver
  2. kidneys are innervated by:
    sympathetic nervous system

    parasympathetic nervous system
  3. Kidneys-homeostasis:
    production of urine

    elimination of urine
  4. kidneys maintain fluid homeostasis:
    1.detoxifies blood

    2.eliminates waste

    3.regulates blood pressure
  5. tests on kidneys:
    intake/output

    traditionallhy seen in all hospital clients
  6. ultrasound/kidneys
    visualizes the bladder, if full or empty

    important after removal of catheters
  7. treatments/kidneys:
    Dialysis:

    semipermeable membrane

    osmosis and diffusion (imitate normal renal function by eliminating excess body fluid)

    used w/ Acute &/or Chronic kidney failure
  8. Kidney transplant
    used w/ End Stage renal disease

    Limitations:

    1. shortage of donors

    2. rejection

    3. lifelong medical

    4. follow-up care
  9. Diagnosis:
    Acute & Chronic Renal Failure
    symptoms develop:

    75% of filtration lost

    rapid deterioration occurs w/ worsening symptoms as function decreases

    can be fatal if condition in untreated

    Toxins accumulate that produces physiological changes in all organ systems

    End result of a gradual progressive loss of renal function

    due to rapid progression after sudden onset
  10. Cause:
    Acute/Chronic renal failure
    Diabetes

    Hypertension


    • other:
    • chronic infection
    • congenital abnormalities
    • ascular disease
    • obstructions
    • collagen based diseases like lupus
  11. Stages:
    Acute/Chronic renal failure
    Normal->80 ml/min

    1.reduced renal reserve-40-70 ml/min

    2.renal insufficiency-20-40 ml/min

    3.renal failure-10-20 ml/min

    4. end stage renal disease-less than 10ml/min
  12. Signs:
    Acute/Chronic renal failure
    • dry mouth
    • fatigue
    • nausea
    • confusion
    • decreased output
    • increased infection
    • dark color urine-due to less diluteness
  13. Dialysis:
    Periotoneal
    performed immediately

    • requires less quipment
    • requires small amount or no blood thinner

    no blood loss

    performed anywhere

    allows for patient independence

    lower infection

    lower cost
  14. Dialysis:
    Hemodialysis
    3-5 hours per treatment

    acts faster in acute situations

    half the hours for maintenance when compared to peritoneal

    requires surgical access route

    comples

    causes chronic infection
  15. Dialysis:
    Treatment
    symptom control

    minimizing complications

    slowing the progression of the disease

    1. decreased protein diet

    2. fluid restriction

    dialysis until transplant can occur

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