Nutrition Ch. 1

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Nutrition Ch. 1
2012-03-30 12:10:56
what you eat why

test 1
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  1. List the three leading causes of death in the United States? Which are nutrition related?
    • 1. Heart Disease (nutrition related)
    • 2. Cancer
    • 3. Stroke
  2. List the 6 classes of nutrients.
    • 1. Carbohydrates (energy yield: 4 kilocals/gram; organic)
    • 2. Lipds (energy yield: 9 kilocals/gram; organic)
    • 3. Proteins (energy yield: 4 kilocals/gram; organic)
    • 4. Vitamins (organic; enable chemical reactions; 13)
    • 5. Minerals (inorganic; 16; electrolytes)
    • 6. Water (most VITAL)
  3. What substances, present in fruits and vegetables, provide significant health benefits suchs as reducing rish of cancer?
  4. Explain what it means to be an essential nutrient
    • Essential nutrients must satisfy three criteria:
    • 1. Specific biological function of the nutrient in the body.
    • 2. Omission of the nutrient leads to decline in biological functions.
    • 3. Replacing the omitted nutrient before permanent damage occurs restores normal biological functions.
  5. The Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) of the National Academy of Sciences advocates the following percent of calories should come from the energy yielding nutrients:
    • 1. Carbs 45%-65%
    • 2. Lipids 20%-35%
    • 3. Protein 10%-35%
  6. Define kcalorie
    The measurement of nutrient that primarily provides us with calories to meet energy needs.
  7. In chemistry terms, explain what is meant by the terms "organic"
  8. What hormone is made by the fat cells and influences long-term regulation of fat stores?
  9. Differentiate between hunger and appettite
    • -Hunger: physical; biological
    • -Appettite: psychological
  10. Discuss the current factors that can influence American food habits in a negative way.
    The NHANES showed that the North Americans consume a wide variety of foods but often do not choose the right balance of foods to me their nutrient needs.
  11. Food eaten away from home now accounts for close to ___of the American food dollar.
  12. For student athletes, water is andequate fluid replacement for events lasting less than ___ minutes.
  13. Consuming five or more alcoholic drinks in a row for men, or four alcoholic drinks or more for women, is considered ____.
    Binge Drinking
    • gram=1/30 of an ounce (28 grams to oz.)
    • 5 grams of sugar/salt=1 tsp.
    • 1 lb=454 grams
    • 1 kg=1000 grams=2.2 lbs.
    • liters divided into 1000 units called mL
    • one tsp=5 mL
    • 1 cup=240 mL
    • 1 quart=1 L
  15. Americans consume approximately 16% of their kcalories as protein, 50% as carbs, and ___as fat.
  16. The _____is one important region in the brain that influences whether we eat or not.