Nutrition Ch. 4

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Nutrition Ch. 4
2012-03-30 14:55:23

test 1
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  1. Differentiate between simple and and complex carbohydrates. Explain which carbs are simple and which are complex. List food sources for each type of carb.
    • Simple carbs, often referred to as simple sugars, contain only one or two sugar units. They are two groups of sugars: monosaccharides and disaccharides. Monosaccharides consists of: 1) glucose-which is used for energy and often called blood sugar and comes from the digestion of starches and sucrose. 2) fructose-which is often called fruit sugar or fruit syrup and mostly comes to our diet through high-fructose corn syrup. 3)galactose-which is much like glucose and is mainly found bonded to glucose, creating lactose which is found in milk and other millk products Disaccharides consist of: 1) lactose-which is glucose and galactose bonded and found in milk and sugar. 2) sucrose-which is glucose and frutose bonded and found in table suger. 3) maltose-which is glucose and glucose bonded and found in liquor and beer.
    • Complex carbs, often known as polysaccharides or starch, may contain 1000 or more glucose units and found chiefly in grains, vegetables, and fruits. There are three main complex carbs: starch (plant storage), glycogen (animal form), and fiber.
  2. Describe the harmful effects of fiber when taken in excess.
    Fibers known as viscious fibers are readily fermented by bacteria in the large intestine. These fibers consist of: pectins, gums, and mucilages. These fibers are also classfied as soluble fibers. These fibers are in sald dressings, some frozen desserts, jams, and jellies.
  3. Describe the tasks of the various body systems in breaking down carbohydrates into glucose to fuel the cell's work.
    Yielding energy supplies the body with glucose which supplies us with the energy we need. The body works to break down everything we eat into monosaccharides so it can be stored mainly as glucose because we need energy for everything. Any excess glucose that is not used is stored as glycogen. After a few hours of not eating, the pancreas releases the hormone glucagon which has the opposite effect of insulin Glucagon helps blood glucose from falling too low.
  4. Explain what is meant by the protein-sparing action of carbohydrates.
    Diet supplement companies have started using sufficient carbohydrates in their products so as to decrease protein breakdown and thereby protects vital tissues and organs, including the heart. Lean tissue is not something you want to lose.
  5. Differentiate between the definitions and symptoms of postprandial hypoglycemia and fasting hypoglycemia.
    Postprandial hypoglycemia generally generates symptoms of adrenergic stimulation including diaphoresis, anxiety, irritability, palpitations, tremor, and hunger. Occurs 2 to 4 hours postprandially, occurs suddenly and generally subsides in 15 to 20 minutes. Caused by stimulation of epinephrine release. Postprandial hypoglycemia is often idiopathic but may be caused by: early diabetes, alcohol intake, postgastrectomy, renal failure, drugs such as salicylates, B-blockers, pentamidine.

    Patients suffering from fasting hypoglycemia generally have symptoms of neuroglycopenia, including headache, mental dullness, and fatigue. If hypoglycemiais more severe, may progress to confusion, visual blurring, loss of consciousness, and seizures. Occurs with fasting greater than 4 hours. Possible causes are: Excess insulin including insulinoma, self-administered insulin/oral hypoglycemic agents (diabetic insulin overdose), Alcohol abuse and liver disease (decreased gluconeogenesis), Pituitary or adrenal insufficiency
  6. Explain the relationship between obesity and type 2 diabetes.
    In most cases, people who are over weight with bad eating habits and who are considered obese, develop type 2 diabetes. Type 2 is consider and non-insulin dependent, so weight loss usually reverses the disease.
  7. Explain why calorie for calorie, carb-rich foods contribute less to body fatness than do fat-rich foods.
    Most carbs can be broken down into things the body needs such as energy, whereas fat is solid and hard to digest.