chapter11.txt

Card Set Information

Author:
markfields
ID:
144772
Filename:
chapter11.txt
Updated:
2012-04-11 16:41:43
Tags:
Psych 11
Folders:

Description:
ch. 11 cards psych
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user markfields on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. Encoding:
    refers to making mental representations of information so that it can be placed into our memories
  2. Memory
    • ability to retain information over time through three processes: encoding, storing, and retrieving
    • Encoding
    • refers to making mental representations of information so that it can be placed into our memories
  3. Storing
    • is the process of placing encoded information into relatively permanent mental storage for later recall
    • - helps to store or encode information in long-term memory.
  4. Retrieving
    process of getting or recalling information that has been placed into short-term or long-term storage
  5. What are the memory processes
    • - sensory memory
    • - if you do not pay attention the information is forgotten
    • - if you pay attention, information is automatically transfered into short-term memory
    • - short term memory
    • - if you do not pay attention and study material, it is not encoded and it is forgotten.
    • - long- term memory:
    • - encoded information will remain on a relatively permanent basis.
  6. Sensory Memory
    refers to an initial process that recieves and holds enviromental information in its raw form for a brief period of time, from an instant to several seconds
  7. Short-term memory
    also know as working-memory, refers to another process that can hold only a limited amount of information, an average of seven items -2 to 30 seconds.

    • two features:
    • - limited duration
    • -maintenance rehearsal
    • - this refers to the practice of intentionally repeating or rehearsing information so that it remains longer in short-term momory.
  8. Long-term memory
    refers to the process of storing almost unlimited amounts of information over long periods of time.
  9. Funtions of short-term memory
    - Attending
    selectively attend to information that is relevant and disregard everything else.
  10. Rehearsing
    allows you to hold information for a short period of time until you decide what to do with it.
  11. Two features of short term memory:
    1. Limited capacity
    - when there is limited capacity ther is a interference which means?
    it happens when new information enters short-term memory and overwrites or pushes out information that is already there.
  12. 2. Chunking refers to?
    combining separate items of information into a larger unit, or chunk, and then remembering chunks of information rather that individual items.
  13. what are the functions of sensory memory?
    • - prevents being overwhelmed
    • - gives decision time
    • - provides stability, playback, and recognition
  14. Iconic memory:
    is a form of sensory memory that automatically holds visual information for about a quarter of a second or more; as soon as you shift your attention, the information disappears.
  15. Echoic memory:
    a form of sensory memory that holds auditory information for 1 to 2 seconds
  16. •Separate Memory Systems
    –primacy effect:
    a form of sensory memory that holds auditory information for 1 to 2 seconds
  17. •Separate Memory Systems
    –recency effect:
    •better recall, or improvement in retention, of information presented at the end of a task
  18. –primary-recency effect
    better recall of information presented at the beginning and end of a task
  19. –Declarative memory
    •involves memories for facts or events, such as scenes, stories, words, conversations, faces, or daily events
  20. –Semantic memory
    • type
    • of declarative memory and that involves knowledge of facts, concepts, words,
    • definitions, and language rules
  21. –Semantic
    memory
    • •type
    • of declarative memory and that involves knowledge of facts, concepts, words,
    • definitions, and language rules
  22. •Declarative versus procedural or nondeclarative
    –Episodic memory:
    • •type
    • of declarative memory that involves knowledge of specific events, personal
    • experiences (episodes), or activities, such as naming or describing favorite
    • restaurants or hobbies
  23. •Declarative versus procedural or nondeclarative
    –Proceduralor non declarative memory
    involves memories for motor skills (playing tennis), some cognitive behaviors learned through classical conditioning
  24. •Two kinds of encoding

    –Automatic
    encoding



    •personal
    events

    •interesting
    facts

    •skills
    and habits
    • •transfer
    • of information from short-term into long-term memory without any effort and
    • usually without any awareness

    • •personal
    • events

    • •interesting
    • facts

    • •skills
    • and habits
  25. •Two kinds of encoding
    –Effortful encoding
    • •involves
    • the transfer of information from short-term into long-term memory either by
    • working hard to repeat or rehearse the information or, especially, by making
    • associations between new and old information
  26. •Rehearsing and encoding
    –Maintenance rehearsal
    refers to simply repeating or rehearsing the information rather than forming any new associations
  27. –Elaborative rehearsal
    •involvesusing effort to actively make meaningful associations between new informationthat you wish to remember and old or familiar information that is alreadystored in long-term memory
  28. •Levels of processing
    • –theory
    • says that remembering depends on how information is encoded

    • –shallow
    • processing: poor recall

    • –deeper
    • and deepest processing: encode by making new association
  29. REPRESSED MEMORIES
    the process by which the mind pushes a memory of some threatening or traumatic event deep into the unconscious mind
  30. eidetic imagery
    Form of photographic memory that occurs in children, is the ability to examine a picture or page for 10-3 seconds and then for several minutes hold in one's mind a detailed visual image of the material
  31. Unusual Memorie flashbulb memories
    vivid recollections, usually in great detail, of dramatic or emotionally charged incidents that are of interest to the personencoded effortlessly and may last for long periods of time
  32. Implanting false memories
    studies on implanting false memories simply show that a false suggestion can grow into a vivid, detailed, and believable personal memory
  33. photographic memory
    occurs in adults, is ability to form sharp, detailed visual images after examining a picture or page for a short period of time and to recall the entire image at a later date

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview