ch 15.txt

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  1. Module 15
    Motivation
  2. THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
    • Motivation
    • refers to the various physiological and psychological factors that cause us to act in a specific way at a particular time
    • Instincts
    • innate tendencies or biological forces that determine behavior
    • fixed action pattern
    • innate biological force that predisposes an organism to behave in a fixed way in the presence of a specific environmental condition
  3. THEORIES OF MOTIVATION (CONT.)
    • Brain: reward/pleasure center
    • includes several areas of the brain, such as the nucleus accumbens and the ventral tegmental area, and involves several neurotransmitters, especially dopamine
    • makes up a neural circuitry that produces rewarding and pleasurable feelings
    • genes have been linked to several behaviors that trigger the brain�s reward/pleasure center including obesity, risk-taking, behaviors (gambling), nicotine addiction, and sexual activity
    • THEORIES OF MOTIVATION (CONT.)
    • THEORIES OF MOTIVATION (CONT.)
    • Incentives
    • goals, that can be either objects or thoughts, that we learn to value and that we are motivated to obtain
    • incentives have two common features
    • first: can be thoughts
    • second: can be objects
    • THEORIES OF MOTIVATION (CONT.)
    • Cognitive factors
    • Extrinsic motivation
    • involves engaging in certain activities or behaviors that either reduce biological needs or help us obtain incentives or external rewards
    • Intrinsic motivation
    • involves engaging in certain activities or behaviors because the behaviors themselves are personally rewarding or because engaging in these activities fulfills our beliefs or expectations
    • BIOLOGICAL & SOCIAL NEEDS
    • Biological needs
    • physiological requirements that are critical to our survival and physical well-being
    • Social needs
    • needs that are acquired through learning and experience
    • Satisfying needs
    • Maslow�s hierarchy of needs
    • ascending order, or hierarchy, in which biological needs are placed at the bottom and social needs at the top
    • BIOLOGICAL & SOCIAL NEEDS (CONT.)
    • BIOLOGICAL & SOCIAL NEEDS (CONT.)
    • Maslow�s Hierarchy of Needs
    • Level 1 physiological needs
    • Level 2 safety needs
    • Level 3 love and belonging needs
    • Level 4 esteem needs
    • Level 5 self-actualization
    • HUNGER
    • Optimal weight
    • ideal weight results from an almost perfect balance between how much food an organism eats and how much it needs to meet its body�s energy needs
    • calorie
    • a measure of how much energy food contains
    • Overweight
    • means that a person is 20% over the ideal body weight
    • obesity
    • means that a person is 30% or more above the ideal body weight
    • HUNGER (CONT.)
    • Three hunger factors
    • Biological hunger factors
    • come from physiological changes in blood chemistry and signals from digestive organs that provide feedback to the brain, which in turn, triggers us to eat or stop eating
    • Psychosocial hunger factors
    • Learned associations between food and other stimuli, such as snacking while watching television; sociocultural influences, such as pressures to be thin; and various personality problems, such as depression, dislike of body image, or low self-esteem
  4. HUNGER (CONT.)
    • Genetic hunger factors
    • come from inherited instructions found in our genes
    • determine the number of fat cells or metabolic rates of burning off the body�s fuel, which push us toward being normal, overweight, or underweight
    • HUNGER (CONT.)
    • Biological Hunger Factors
    • Peripheral cues
    • Results from activity in different brain areas, which in turn results in increasing or decreasing appetite
    • Central cues
    • result from activity in different brain areas, which in turn result in increasing or decreasing appetite
  5. High need for achievement
    • shown by those who persist longer at tasks; perform better on tasks, activities, or exams; set challenging but realistic goals; compete with others to win; and are attracted to careers that require initiative
    • Fear of failure
    • shown by people who are motivated to avoid failure by choosing easy, nonchallenging tasks where failure is more unlikely to occur
    • ACHIEVEMENT (CONT.)
    • Need for achievement
    • Fear of failure
    • Self-handicapping
    • refers to doing things that contribute to failure and then using these very things, knowingly or unknowingly, as excuses for failing to achieve some goal
    • Underachievement
    • underachievers are individuals who score relatively high on tests of ability or intelligence but perform more poorly than their scores would predict
    • ACHIEVEMENT (CONT.)
    • Cognitive influences
    • Cognitive factors in motivation
    • refer to how people evaluate or perceive a situation and how these evaluations and perceptions influence their willingness to work
    • Intrinsic motivation
    • involves engaging in certain activities or behaviors without receiving any external rewards because engaging in these activities fulfills our beliefs or expectations
    • ACHIEVEMENT (CONT.)
    • Cognitive influences
    • Cognitive factors in motivation
    • Extrinsic motivation
    • involves engaging in certain activities or behaviors that either reduce biological needs or help us obtain incentives and external rewards
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ch 15.txt
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ch 15 psych
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