S2M3 physio

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Author:
sweetlu
ID:
144782
Filename:
S2M3 physio
Updated:
2012-04-08 17:03:18
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S2M3 physio
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S2M3 physio
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  1. key event and rate limiting step in initiating puberty
    -pulsatile release of GnRH
  2. abnormal breast development
    • - breast buds before 8 or lack of development by 13
    • - requires further investigation
  3. menarche
    • - Tanner stage 4
    • - first menses
    • - cycles during first 6-12 months are usually irregulat and anovulatory
  4. dominant follicle
    • - theca interna- reponds to LH in very low levels and synthesizes androstenodione
    • - granulosa cells- respond to FSH in very low levels and secretes estrogen, inhibin and activin
    • - secrete estrogens to regulate the follicular/ proliferative phase
  5. estrogens
    • - secreted by the granulosa cell
    • - low levels- supress release of GnRH, FSH and LH
    • - 1 E of follicular phase is estradiol 17 B

  6. inhibins
    • - supress release of FSH
    • - secreted by the granulosa cell
  7. activin
    • - stimulates FSH release
    • - secreted by the granulosa cell
  8. High levels of estrogen
    • - stimulate the HT==> increased GnRH secretion
    • - increases FSH and LH
    • - increased FSH then upreg LH-r in GC (periovulatory/late proliferative phase)
    • - resulting in a high sustaines estradiol level
  9. ferning
    - hallmark indicator of ovulatory cerical secretion
  10. key limiting factor regulating female fertility
    - oocyte quality
  11. optimal fertility
    • - ages 20-30
    • - days 12 and 13 of cycle
  12. CDF-9 and BMP-15
    • - secreted by the oocyte
    • - stimulate GC
    • - important in dominant follicle selection
    • - blocking of these will prevent emergence of a dominant follicle
  13. precoscious puberty
    • M- <9
    • F- <6-8
  14. regulation of spermatogenesis
    - Testosterone and FSH acting directly on Sertoli cells are primary regulators of spermatogenesis
  15. estrogen effects in males
    • - sperm production
    • - sex drive, behavior
    • - skeleton
    • - f/b suppression to anterior pituitary
  16. follicular phase
    • - early- low levels of LH and FSH cause E production, which causes proliferation of functional layer of endometrium
    • - mid- E levels rising, but still inhibitory to HT/P
    • - late- peak FSH, LH. High E causes HT/P f/b switch. High E for 48 hrs
  17. luteal phase
    • - early- leutinization of ruptured follicle=> CL form=> progesterone production
    • - mid- fully developed CL, high P production, rescue by hCG during "window of implantation"
    • - late- if no hCG CL dies, P decreases and menses will follow
  18. periovulatory period
    • - aka late proliferative phase
    • - high FSH (vie high E) lead to upred of LH-r on GC==> progesterone formation
    • - upreg of LH-r and progesterone are required for ovulation to occur
    • - ~48 hrs after E spike=>LH surge=> ovulation (~10 hours after LH surge)
  19. resumption of meiosis
    • - occurs during ovulatory window as a result of LH and P surge
    • - increase in [Ca]cyt indicates meiosis has resumed
    • - newly formed 2ndary oocyte (and PB1) arrest in metaphase II untill fertilization
  20. capacitation
    • - removal of no longer required substances from surface of sperm once they enter the oviduct
    • - final step is hyperactivation (faster and circular mvmt)
    • - functional maturation of sperm preparing them for the acrosomal reaction
  21. acrosomal reaction
    • - initiated when sperm contact ZP
    • - involves binding and subsequent b/d of ZP to allow sperm entry and fusion with oocytes

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