Ecology

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Author:
thinkrussia
ID:
144793
Filename:
Ecology
Updated:
2012-03-30 17:49:27
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Ecology
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Description:
Biology DAT 14
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  1. What is ecology?
    study of the interactions between organisms and their environment
  2. What is an abiotic environment?
    environment and the living
  3. What are the levels of biological organization?
    • Organism: individual unit of an ecological system
    • Population: group of organisms of the same species living together in a given location
    • Community: different species interacting with each other
    • Ecosystem: interaction between abiotic and biotic environments
    • Biosphere: atmosphere, lithosphere, and hydrosphere
  4. What is the definition of a species?
    able to produce offspring
  5. What is the ultimate source of energy for all organisms?
    sunlight
  6. What is the top layer of water in which light can penetrate?
    photic zone
  7. What is humus?
    decaying pland and animal life in the soil
  8. How does a niche differ from a habitat?
    niche defines the funtional role of an organism in its ecosystem while a habitat is the physical place where an organism lives
  9. Can two species occupy the same niche?
    No, one will become superior or they will become divergent.
  10. Are herbivores or carnivores more adept in defense? Why?
    herbivores because they are often prey
  11. What are omnivores?
    animals which eat both plants and animals
  12. What are the three types of symbiosis?
    commensalism, mutualism, and parasitism
  13. What is saprophytism?
    protists and fungi that decompose dead organic matter externally and absorb the nutrients
  14. What percent of the bodies energy is given off as heat?
    60%
  15. What's another way to say cold-blooded?
    poikilothermic
  16. What's another way to say warm blooded?
    homeothermic
  17. What are the five steps of the food chain?
    • producer, plants and chemosynthetic bacteria
    • primary consumer, herbivores
    • secondary consumer
    • tertiary consumer
    • decomposer
  18. What is the second law of thermodynamics?
    every energy transfer involves a loss of energy
  19. What are the three different food pyramids?
    • energy
    • mass
    • numbers
  20. Explain the nitrogen cycle
    • N2 converted to nitrates, NO3- by nitrogen fixing bacteria
    • Eaten by plants to protein synthesis
    • eaten by animals to protein synthesis
    • after death or waste, converted to ammonia, NH3
    • Either converted to nitrites, NO2 by nitrifying bacteria, or to N2 by denitrifying bacteria
  21. Explain the CO2 cycle
    • CO2 in atmosphere
    • photosynthesis
    • ingestion
    • decay back into atmosphere
  22. What is a climax community?
    stable, living part of the ecosystem in which populations exist in balance with each other and with the environment. Won't change unless equilibrium is upset by outside factors
  23. A community stage during ecological succession is called what?
    a sere
  24. What are the 8 terrestrial biomes?
    • 1. Desert
    • 2. Grassland
    • 3. Tropical Rain Forest: contain plants that grow on other plants (epiphytes)
    • 4. Temperate Deciduous Forest: cold winters, warm summers
    • 5. Temperate Coniferous Forest: needle shaped leaves
    • 6. Taiga: long cold winters, only contain spruce
    • 7. Tundra: frozen plain, short growing season
    • 8. Polar: no vegetation and terrestrial animals
  25. What are the 5 types of Marine Biomes?
    • 1. Intertidal: where waves hit
    • 2. Littoral: shallow water on continental shelf
    • 3. Pelagic: open seas, two parts, photic and aphotic zones
    • 4. Photic: sunlit layer of deep water
    • 5. Aphotic: no sunlight here
  26. How do freshwater biomes differ from marine biomes?
    hypotonic, currents, and change in temperature

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