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What is ecology?
study of the interactions between organisms and their environment
What is an abiotic environment?
environment and the living
What are the levels of biological organization?
- Organism: individual unit of an ecological system
- Population: group of organisms of the same species living together in a given location
- Community: different species interacting with each other
- Ecosystem: interaction between abiotic and biotic environments
- Biosphere: atmosphere, lithosphere, and hydrosphere
What is the definition of a species?
able to produce offspring
What is the ultimate source of energy for all organisms?
What is the top layer of water in which light can penetrate?
What is humus?
decaying pland and animal life in the soil
How does a niche differ from a habitat?
niche defines the funtional role of an organism in its ecosystem while a habitat is the physical place where an organism lives
Can two species occupy the same niche?
No, one will become superior or they will become divergent.
Are herbivores or carnivores more adept in defense? Why?
herbivores because they are often prey
What are omnivores?
animals which eat both plants and animals
What are the three types of symbiosis?
commensalism, mutualism, and parasitism
What is saprophytism?
protists and fungi that decompose dead organic matter externally and absorb the nutrients
What percent of the bodies energy is given off as heat?
What's another way to say cold-blooded?
What's another way to say warm blooded?
What are the five steps of the food chain?
- producer, plants and chemosynthetic bacteria
- primary consumer, herbivores
- secondary consumer
- tertiary consumer
What is the second law of thermodynamics?
every energy transfer involves a loss of energy
What are the three different food pyramids?
Explain the nitrogen cycle
- N2 converted to nitrates, NO3- by nitrogen fixing bacteria
- Eaten by plants to protein synthesis
- eaten by animals to protein synthesis
- after death or waste, converted to ammonia, NH3
- Either converted to nitrites, NO2 by nitrifying bacteria, or to N2 by denitrifying bacteria
Explain the CO2 cycle
- CO2 in atmosphere
- decay back into atmosphere
What is a climax community?
stable, living part of the ecosystem in which populations exist in balance with each other and with the environment. Won't change unless equilibrium is upset by outside factors
A community stage during ecological succession is called what?
What are the 8 terrestrial biomes?
- 1. Desert
- 2. Grassland
- 3. Tropical Rain Forest: contain plants that grow on other plants (epiphytes)
- 4. Temperate Deciduous Forest: cold winters, warm summers
- 5. Temperate Coniferous Forest: needle shaped leaves
- 6. Taiga: long cold winters, only contain spruce
- 7. Tundra: frozen plain, short growing season
- 8. Polar: no vegetation and terrestrial animals
What are the 5 types of Marine Biomes?
- 1. Intertidal: where waves hit
- 2. Littoral: shallow water on continental shelf
- 3. Pelagic: open seas, two parts, photic and aphotic zones
- 4. Photic: sunlit layer of deep water
- 5. Aphotic: no sunlight here
How do freshwater biomes differ from marine biomes?
hypotonic, currents, and change in temperature