Card Set Information

2012-03-31 09:41:19
Medical Terminology Health Professionals 6E Digestive

Ch8 Medical Terminology - PART 5 - Digestive System - Diagnostic Procedures & Treatment
Show Answers:

  1. Abdominal computed tomography (CT)
    1. Radiographic procedure that produces a detailed cross-section of the tissue structure within the abdomen

    2. Shows such things as presence of a tumor or obstruction
  2. Abdominal ultrasound
    Noninvasive test used to visualize internal organs by using very high frequency sound waves
  3. Anoscopy
    Visual examination of the anal canal & lower rectum using an anoscope
  4. Anoscope
    Short speculum used for anoscopy
  5. Speculum
    Instrument used to enlarge an opening of any body cavity to facilitate inspection of the interior.
  6. Capsule endoscopy
    1. Tiny video camera in a capsule that patient swallows.

    2. For approximately 8 hours, as it passes thru the small intestine, the camera transmits images of the walls of the small intestine.

    3. Images are detected by sensor devices attached to the patient's abdomen & transmitted by a data recorder worn on the patient's belt.
  7. Cholangiography
    1. Radiographic examination of the bile ducts with the use of a contrast medium

    2. Test used to identify obstruction in the liver or bile duct that slow or block flow of bile from liver.
  8. Cholangiogram
    The record that results from cholangiography
  9. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy
    • Endoscopic procedure that allows direct visualization of the upper GI tract, including the:
    • .....a. Esophagus
    • .....b. Stomach
    • .....c. Upper duodenum
  10. Upper GI series (barium swallow)
    1. Radiographic study using contrast medium to examine the upper digestive tract.

    2. Contrast medium is needed to make these structures visible.
  11. Lower GI series (barium enema)
    1. Radiographic study using contrast medium to examine the lower digestive tract

    2. Contrast medium is needed to make these structures visible.
  12. Hemoccult test (fecal occult blood test)
    1. Laboratory test for hidden blood in stool.

    2. A test kit is used to obtain the specimen at home and evaluate it in a laboratory or physician office.
  13. Stool samples
    1. Specimens of feces that are examined in a laboratory setting for content & characteristics.

    • 2. Examples:
    • .....a. Fatty stools could indicate pancreatic problems
    • .....b. Examined for O&P (ova & parasites) to identify parastic infectation
    • ......c. Cultures can be examined for presence of bacteria
  14. Endoscope
    1. Instrument used for visual examination of internal structures

    • can be used for early detection of polyps that may be cancerous:
    • ......a. Colonoscopy
    • ......b. Sigmoidoscopy
  15. Colonoscopy
    Direct visual examination of inner surface of the entire colon - from rectum to cecum
  16. Virtual colonoscopy
    Uses x-rays & computers to produce 2D & 3D images of the colon
  17. Sigmoidoscopy
    • Endoscopic examination of the interior of the:
    • .....a. Rectum
    • .....b. Sigmoid colon
    • .....c. (possibly) a portion of the descending colon
  18. Enema
    1. Placement of a solution into the rectum & colon to empty the lower intestine thru bowel activity

    • 2. Used to:
    • .....a. Prep for an endoscopic examination
    • .....b. Treat severe constipation
  19. Antacid
    1. Medication which neutralizes the acids in the stomach

    • 2. Taken to:
    • .....a. Relieve discomfort of conditions such as pyrosis
    • .....b. Help peptic ulcers heal
  20. Acid Reducer
    1. Medication which reduces the amount of acid produced by the stomach

    2. Used to treat symptoms of conditions such as gastroesphageal reflux disease (GERD)
  21. Antiemetic
    Medication that prevents or relieves nausea & vomiting
  22. Laxative
    Medication - or food - given to stimulate bowel movements
  23. Bulk forming laxative
    Substance - such as bran - used to treat constipation by helping fecal matter retain water & remain soft as it moves thru the intestines.
  24. Oral rehydration therapy (ORT)
    1. Treatment to counteract dehydration that can accompany severe diarrhea especially in young children

    2. A solution of electrolytes is administered in a liquid preparation
  25. Dental prophylaxis
    Professional cleaning of the teeth to remove plaque & calculus
  26. Prophylaxis
    • Treatment intended to:
    • .....a. Prevent a disease
    • .....b. Stop a disease from spreading

    2. Example: Vaccination to provide immunity against a specific disease
  27. Gigivectomy
    Surgical removal of diseased gingival tissues
  28. Maxillofacial surgery
    1. Specialized surgery of the face & jaws

    • 2. Used to:
    • .....a. Correct deformities
    • .....b. Treat diseases
    • .....c. Repair injuries
  29. Palatplasty
    Surgical repair of cleft lip and/or palate
  30. Stomatoplasty
    Surgical repair of the mouth
  31. Gastrectomy
    Surgical removal of all or part of the stomach
  32. Nasogastric intubation
    1. Placement of a TEMPORARY feeding tube thru the nose & into the stomach

    2. This tube provides nutrition for patients who cannot take sufficient nutrients by mouth
  33. Gastrostomy tube
    1. Placement of a PERMANENT feeding tube from the exterior of the body into the stomach.

    2. This tube provide nutrition for patients who cannot swallow or take sufficient nutrients by mouth
  34. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN)
    Administered to patient who cannot, or should not, get their nutrition thru eating.

    2. ALL of the patient's nutrional requirements are met thru a nutritional liquid that is administered intravenously for 10-12 hours per day or 5 times a week.
  35. Parenteral
    Means not in, or thru, the digestive system
  36. Bariatric surgery
    1. Surgery performed to treat morbid obesity

    • 2. Procedures restrict amount of food that can enter the stomach & be digested:
    • .....a. Gastric bypass surgery
    • .....b. Gastric lap-band

    • 3. These procedures enable weight loss by:
    • .....a. Limiting food intake
    • .....b. Forcing dietary changes
  37. Colectomy
    Surgical removal of all or part of the colon
  38. Diverticulectomy
    Surgical removal of a diverticulum
  39. Gastroduodenostomy
    1. Establishment of anastomosis between upper portion of the stomach & duodenum

    • 2. Procedure performed to:
    • .....a. Treat stomach cancer
    • .....b. Remove malfunctioning pyloric valve
  40. Anastomosis
    Surgical connection between two hollow or tubular structures
  41. Ileectomy
    Surgical removal of the ileum
  42. Ostomy
    Surgical procedure to create a stoma - an artificial opening between n organ & the body surface.

    • NOTE: Can be used as either a noun or a suffix:
    • .....a. NOUN - Used alone to describe a procedure
    • .....b. SUFFIX - Used with word part describing the organ involved
  43. Ileostomy
    Surgical creation of an artificial excretory opening between the ileum, at the end of the small intestine, and the outside of the abdominal wall.
  44. Colostomy
    1. Surgical creation of an artificial excretory opening between the colon and the body surface

    2. The segment of intestine below the ostomy is usually removed

    3. Fecal matter flows thru the stoma into a disposable bag.

    3. Can be temporary to divert feces from an area that needs to heal
  45. Hemorrhoidectomy
    Surgical removal of hemorrhoids

    2. Rubber band ligation is often used instead of surgery
  46. Rubber band ligation
    1. Alternative to surgery to remove hemorrhoids.

    2. Rubber bands cut off the circulation at the base of the hemorrhoid, causing it to eventually fall off.
  47. Ligation
    Means the tying off of blood vessel or ducts
  48. Protectomy
    Surgical removal of the rectum
  49. Proctopexy
    1. Surgical fixation of a prolasped rectum to an adjacent tissue or organ.

    2. Procedure can be performed as a laparoscopic procedure in which a laparoscope & instruments are inserted into the abdomen thru a small incision.
  50. Ligation
    Means tying off of blood vessels or ducts
  51. Prolapse
    Means falling or dropping down of an organ or internal part.
  52. Laparoscope
    A specialized endoscope used for the examination & treatment of abdominal conditions.
  53. Proctoplasty
    Surgical repair of the rectum
  54. Hepatectomy
    Surgical removal of all or part of the liver
  55. Hepatorrhaphy
    Surgical suturing of the liver
  56. Liver transplant
    1. Option for a patient whose liver has failed for a reason other than liver cancer.

    2. Because liver tissue regenerates, a partial liver transplant can be adequate.
  57. Partial liver transplant
    1. Only part of the organ is transplanted since liver regenerates

    2. Can be donated by a living donor with matching blood & tissue types.
  58. Choledocholithotomy
    1. Incision into the common bile duct to remove gallstones
  59. Cholecyctectomy
    Surgical removal of the gallbladder

    • 2. Procedure may be:
    • .....a. Open - thru incision in right side of upper abdomen
    • .....b. Laparoscopic - using laparoscope & several small incisions
  60. Open cholecystectomy
    Performed thru an incision in the right side of the upper abdomen
  61. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (lap choley)
    Surgical removal of the gallbladder using a laparoscope & other instruments inserted thru 3 or 4 small incisions in the abdominal wall.