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Abdominal computed tomography (CT)
1. Radiographic procedure that produces a detailed cross-section of the tissue structure within the abdomen
2. Shows such things as presence of a tumor or obstruction
Noninvasive test used to visualize internal organs by using very high frequency sound waves
Visual examination of the anal canal & lower rectum using an anoscope
Short speculum used for anoscopy
Instrument used to enlarge an opening of any body cavity to facilitate inspection of the interior.
1. Tiny video camera in a capsule that patient swallows.
2. For approximately 8 hours, as it passes thru the small intestine, the camera transmits images of the walls of the small intestine.
3. Images are detected by sensor devices attached to the patient's abdomen & transmitted by a data recorder worn on the patient's belt.
1. Radiographic examination of the bile ducts with the use of a contrast medium
2. Test used to identify obstruction in the liver or bile duct that slow or block flow of bile from liver.
The record that results from cholangiography
- Endoscopic procedure that allows direct visualization of the upper GI tract, including the:
- .....a. Esophagus
- .....b. Stomach
- .....c. Upper duodenum
Upper GI series (barium swallow)
1. Radiographic study using contrast medium to examine the upper digestive tract.
2. Contrast medium is needed to make these structures visible.
Lower GI series (barium enema)
1. Radiographic study using contrast medium to examine the lower digestive tract
2. Contrast medium is needed to make these structures visible.
Hemoccult test (fecal occult blood test)
1. Laboratory test for hidden blood in stool.
2. A test kit is used to obtain the specimen at home and evaluate it in a laboratory or physician office.
1. Specimens of feces that are examined in a laboratory setting for content & characteristics
- 2. Examples:
- .....a. Fatty stools could indicate pancreatic problems
- .....b. Examined for O&P (ova & parasites) to identify parastic infectation
- ......c. Cultures can be examined for presence of bacteria
1. Instrument used for visual examination of internal structures
can be used for early detection of polyps that may be cancerous:
- ......a. Colonoscopy
- ......b. Sigmoidoscopy
Direct visual examination of inner surface of the entire colon - from rectum to cecum
Uses x-rays & computers to produce 2D & 3D images of the colon
- Endoscopic examination of the interior of the:
- .....a. Rectum
- .....b. Sigmoid colon
- .....c. (possibly) a portion of the descending colon
1. Placement of a solution into the rectum & colon to empty the lower intestine thru bowel activity
- 2. Used to:
- .....a. Prep for an endoscopic examination
- .....b. Treat severe constipation
1. Medication which neutralizes the acids in the stomach
- 2. Taken to:
- .....a. Relieve discomfort of conditions such as pyrosis
- .....b. Help peptic ulcers heal
1. Medication which reduces the amount of acid produced by the stomach
2. Used to treat symptoms of conditions such as gastroesphageal reflux disease (GERD)
Medication that prevents or relieves nausea & vomiting
Medication - or food - given to stimulate bowel movements
Bulk forming laxative
Substance - such as bran - used to treat constipation by helping fecal matter retain water & remain soft as it moves thru the intestines.
Oral rehydration therapy (ORT)
1. Treatment to counteract dehydration that can accompany severe diarrhea especially in young children
2. A solution of electrolytes is administered in a liquid preparation
Professional cleaning of the teeth to remove plaque & calculus
- Treatment intended to:.....a. Prevent a disease.....b. Stop a disease from spreading
2. Example: Vaccination to provide immunity against a specific disease
Surgical removal of diseased gingival tissues
1. Specialized surgery of the face & jaws
- 2. Used to:
- .....a. Correct deformities
- .....b. Treat diseases
- .....c. Repair injuries
Surgical repair of cleft lip and/or palate
Surgical repair of the mouth
Surgical removal of all or part of the stomach
1. Placement of a TEMPORARY feeding tube thru the nose & into the stomach
2. This tube provides nutrition for patients who cannot take sufficient nutrients by mouth
1. Placement of a PERMANENT feeding tube from the exterior of the body into the stomach.
2. This tube provide nutrition for patients who cannot swallow or take sufficient nutrients by mouth
Total parenteral nutrition (TPN)
Administered to patient who cannot, or should not, get their nutrition thru eating.
2. ALL of the patient's nutrional requirements are met thru a nutritional liquid that is administered intravenously for 10-12 hours per day or 5 times a week.
Means not in, or thru, the digestive system
1. Surgery performed to treat morbid obesity
- 2. Procedures restrict amount of food that can enter the stomach & be digested:.....a. Gastric bypass surgery
- .....b. Gastric lap-band
- 3. These procedures enable weight loss by:
- .....a. Limiting food intake
- .....b. Forcing dietary changes
Surgical removal of all or part of the colon
Surgical removal of a diverticulum
1. Establishment of anastomosis between upper portion of the stomach & duodenum
- 2. Procedure performed to:
- .....a. Treat stomach cancer
- .....b. Remove malfunctioning pyloric valve
Surgical connection between two hollow or tubular structures
Surgical removal of the ileum
Surgical procedure to create a stoma - an artificial opening between n organ & the body surface.
- NOTE: Can be used as either a noun or a suffix:
- .....a. NOUN - Used alone to describe a procedure
- .....b. SUFFIX - Used with word part describing the organ involved
Surgical creation of an artificial excretory opening between the ileum, at the end of the small intestine, and the outside of the abdominal wall.
1. Surgical creation of an artificial excretory opening between the colon and the body surface
2. The segment of intestine below the ostomy is usually removed
3. Fecal matter flows thru the stoma into a disposable bag.
3. Can be temporary to divert feces from an area that needs to heal
Surgical removal of hemorrhoids
2. Rubber band ligation is often used instead of surgery
Rubber band ligation
1. Alternative to surgery to remove hemorrhoids.
2. Rubber bands cut off the circulation at the base of the hemorrhoid, causing it to eventually fall off.
Means the tying off of blood vessel or ducts
Surgical removal of the rectum
1. Surgical fixation of a prolasped rectum to an adjacent tissue or organ.
2. Procedure can be performed as a laparoscopic procedure in which a laparoscope & instruments are inserted into the abdomen thru a small incision.
Means tying off of blood vessels or ducts
Means falling or dropping down of an organ or internal part.
A specialized endoscope used for the examination & treatment of abdominal conditions.
Surgical repair of the rectum
Surgical removal of all or part of the liver
Surgical suturing of the liver
1. Option for a patient whose liver has failed for a reason other than liver cancer.
2. Because liver tissue regenerates, a partial liver transplant can be adequate.
Partial liver transplant
1. Only part of the organ is transplanted since liver regenerates
2. Can be donated by a living donor with matching blood & tissue types.
1. Incision into the common bile duct to remove gallstones
Surgical removal of the gallbladder
- 2. Procedure may be:
- .....a. Open - thru incision in right side of upper abdomen
- .....b. Laparoscopic - using laparoscope & several small incisions
Performed thru an incision in the right side of the upper abdomen
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (lap choley)
Surgical removal of the gallbladder using a laparoscope & other instruments inserted thru 3 or 4 small incisions in the abdominal wall.
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