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What is a group?
A group is a collection of two or more people who interact with each other and are interdependent, in the sense that their needs and goals cause them to rely on each other.
What are social roles?
Shared expectations by group members about how particular people in the group are supposed to behave. An example of social roles at work are in teh Zimbardo experiment. People got into their roles so much that their personal identities and sense of decency were lost.
What are gender roles?
societal expectations about how people who are female or male should behave. Occupational aspirations are often influenced by traditional gender role expectations.
What is group cohesiveness?
Qualities of a group that bind members together and promote liking among them. The more cohesive the group is, the better i.e. the better friends you are with people, the more likely you are to get along with them
What is social facilitation? (people being around when you are performing a task)
performing well on simple tasks but worse on complex tasks when in the prescence of other people so their individual performance can be evaluated. The prescence of others increases physiological arousal and thus makes it easier to perform simple tasks but harder to do something complex or learn something new.
Why does the prescence of other ppl lead to arousal?
- other people cause us to become alert, causing mild arousal
- other people make us apprehensive about how we're being evaluated (evaluation apprehension, causes mild arousal)
- and they distract us from the task at hand, trying to focus on two things at once produces arousal.
What is social loafing?
the tendency for people to do worse on simple tasks, but better on complex tasks, when in the prescence of others BUT their individual performance cant be evaluated so they feel NO evaluation apprehention and can relax
Why does social loafing occur?
when in teh prescence of others, your efforts cannot be distinguished from those of people around you, ie. when you clap loudly after a concert while everyone else is clapping, no one can tell how loud you are clapping.
What are the gender and cultural differences in social loafing?
The tendency to loaf is stronger in men and stronger in Western cultures.
What is deindividuation?
the loosening of normal constraints on behaviour when people are in a group leading to an increase in impulsive and deviant acts. I.e. rioting after a hockey game. People see some guys getting aggressive and decide to participate.
Why does deindividuation lead to impulsive acts?
first, the prescence of others, or the wearing of disguises, makes people feel less accountable for their actions because it reduces the likelihood they can be blamed. Second, the prescence of others lowers self awareness to shift peoples attention away from their moral standards and third, deindividuation increases the extent people follow the group norm-regardless of what it is (the specific norm of the group determines if deindividuation will lead to positive or negative behaviours).
What is process loss?
Any aspect of group interaction that inhibits good problem solving.
Why does process loss occur?
because groups tend to focus on information they share and ignore unique information they may know individually.
What is transactive memory?
The combined memory of two people that is more efficient than the memory of either individual. It is based on the approach that if you assign different group members to specific areas of expertise, they will know they are responsible for certain types of info and will be more likely to bring up this info.
What is groupthink?
A kind of thinking in which maintaining group cohesiveness and solidarity is more important than considering the facts in a realistic manner.
When is groupthink likely to occur?
- It is likely to occur when certain preconditions are met, such as when the group is
- 1.highly cohesive,
- 2.isolated from contrary options
- 3.and ruled by a directed leader.
- Groupthink may have been behind the military decision to go ahead with an anthrax vaccine even though Health CANADA had disapproved it.
How do you avoid the groupthink trap?
Remain impartial, seek outside options, create subgroups, seek anonymous opinions.
What are group polarizations?
The tendency for groups to make decisions that are more extreme than the initial inclinations of their members.
Why does group polarization occur? 2 reasons
- 1. persuasive arguments, group members bring fourth individual arguments that they may not have all thought of, and thus their initial position becomes even stronger.
- 2. social comparison, in order to be liked, people will take a position similar to everyone elses but a little more extreme so that the person can support the groups values but also appear in a positive light.
What is the great person theory?
A theory based upon leadership in groups whereby certain key personality trairs make a person a good leader, regardless of the nature of the situation facing the leader.
What is particularly useful in predicting who makes a good leader?
the trait of dominance and integrative complexity-the ability to recognize more than one perspective on an issue and to be able to integrate all these various perspectives. Most leaders will increase their integrative complexity in a crisis and return to their normal level of complexity afterward.
What is the contingency theory of leadership?
the theory that leadership effectiveness depends both on how task-oriented or relationship oriented the leader is and on the amount of control and influence the leader has over the group.
What is a task oriented leader?
A leader who is concerned more with getting the job done than with the feelings of and relationships among the workers. They do well in high control work situations in which the leader has excellent interpersonal relationships, he/she is percieved as powerful and the work to be done by the group is structured and well defined.
What is a relationship oriented leader?
a leader who is concerned primarily with the feelings and relationships among the workers. They are most effective in moderate control work situations. Pay more attention to hurt feeligns or issues in the workplace and smoothes over these rough patches to be successful.
What kind of leaders are expected of males or females?
women are expected to be communal, concerned with the welfare of others, helpful, kind) and men are expected ot be more agentic, assertive, controlling, and dominant. Women are often put in a rough spot because if they conform too much to their leadership type, they will be percieved as having low leadership potential, if they go against it too much and act agenic, they will be percieved negatively for not acting the way a woman "should"
What is a social dilemma?
A conflict in which the most beneficial action for an individual, if chosen by most people, will have harmful effects on everyone. The most common social dilemma is the prisners dilemma.
What is the tit for tat strategy?
a means of encouraging cooperation by at first acting cooperatively but then always responding the way your opponent did on the previous trial (cooperatively or competetively).
Does the mode of communication affect the development of trust?
Yes, in fact electronic communication is often more hostile than old fashioned face to face communication
What is negotiation?
a form of communication between opposing sides in a conflict in which offers and counteroffers are made and a solution occurs only when both parties agree.
What is an integrative solution?
A solution to a conflict whereby the parties make tradeoffs on issues according to their different interests, each side concedes the most on issues that are unimportant to it but important to the other side. The more people have at stake in a negotiation, the more biased are their perceptions of their opponent.
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