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What is a connection between 2 bones?
What are the functions of a joint?
- allows motion
- bears weight
- provides stability
- contains synovial fluid (lubricates jt, nourishes cartilage)
What is a fibrous joint?
thin layer of fibrous peroisteum betweenm 2 bones
What are the three types of fibrous joints?
What is a suture joint called?
sutures in skull
What is a ligamentous joint called?
distal tibiofibular, distal radioulnar
What is a peg-in-socket joint?
bolted together - tooth in dental socket
What is a cartilaginous joint called?
What are the characteristics of an amphiarthrodial joint?
- -hyaline or fibrocartilage between 2 bones
- -allows sm. amt. of mvmt (bending, twisting, compression)
- -provides great deal of stability
- symphysis pubis - fibrocartilage
- verterbrae, 1st sternocostal jt - hyaline
What is another name for synovial joint?
What are the characteristics of a diarthrodial joint?
- -no direct union between bone ends (allows free motion)
- -components: cavities filled with synovial fluid, articular surface smooth (covered with hyaline or articular cartilage)
hip, elbow, knee
What are the 4 types of synovial joints?
- triaxial (multiaxial)
What type of synovial joint is considered a plane joint/irregular, has only linear mvmt, gliding motion, the joint surfaces are flat (intercarpals)?
What type of synovial joint has 1 axis/1 plane,and hinges or pivots (elbow, c1/c2)?
What type of synovial joint has 2 axes/2 planes, and is condyle (ellipsoidal) or saddle (MCP, CMC)?
What type of synovial joint has 3 axes/3 planes, is a ball and socket, and is least stable (hip and shoulder)?
What are ligaments?
- hold bones together
- -bands of fibrous CT
- -provides attachement for cartilage,fascia, and muscle
- -flexible, but not elastic
- -allows jt mvmt
- -capsular ligaments surround and protect jts
What is a jt capsule?
- surrounds and encases a jt
- -protects articular surfaces of bone
- -2 layers
What lubricates articular cartilage, is used for shock absorption, nutrition and decreases friction?
What is the dense, fibrous CT that can withstand a great amt of pressure and tension?
what are the 3 types of cartilage?
What type of cartilage is found at the end of opposing bones, has a smooth surface, no blood or nerve supply, and gets nutrition from synovial fluid?
What type of cartilage is for shock absorption, and is important in weight bearing joints?
menisci in knee, disc between sternum, clavicle, labrum, interverterbal disc
What type of cartilage has a certain amt of motion, and provides shape?
symphysis pubis, larynx, external ear
What attaches muscle to bone?
What do you find in areas where tendons are subject to a lot of pressure or friction (acts as protection)?
What is an aponeurosis?
- tendon sheath
- -broad, flat tendon sheath
- -found where muscles attach to bone
in wrist, foot, lattisimus dorsi, linea alba (abs)
What is a small padlike sac in areas of excessive friction?
under tendons or over bony prominences
olecranon bursa, students bursa
What plane divides the body into right and left?
flexion and extention occur here
What plane divides the body into front and back?
abduction and adduction occur here
What plane divides the body into top and bottom?
rotation occurs here
What plane passes through the midline of a part?
What do you find at the intersection of all three planes?
What is an axis?
point that runs through the center of the joint around which a part rotates
joint mvmt occurs in an axis that is always perpendicular to its plane
What axis runs from front to back? What plane is it associated with?
What axis runs from side to side? What plane is it associated with?
What axis runs from top to bottom? What plane is it associated with?
vertical axis (longitudinal)