anatomy test two

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  1. the site when two bones meet,
    function: gives skeleton mobility, holds skeleton together sometimes even protects, weakes part of our skeleton
    ex. elbow ______
  2. bending movement decreases angle of joint
    ex. bending head down to chest
  3. increases angle of joint
    ex. head from chest move back up
  4. excessive extension
  5. moving away movement of limb away from the midline or median plane of the body
  6. movement of limb toward our body
  7. turning of a bone along its own long axis
    ex. turing head left to right
  8. fibrous joints, cartilaginous joints and synovial joints are types of ____
  9. bones are all joined by fibrous tissue, no joint cavity is present most are immovable
    fibrous joint
  10. articulating bones are united by cartilage lack a joint cavity not highly movealbe
    ex. synchondroses and sympheses
    cartilaginous joints
  11. where articulating bones are separated by a fluid containing joint cavity freely moveable joints, includes nearly all joints of the limbs
    synovial joints
  12. fibous joints, immovable joints
  13. slightly moveable
  14. freely moveable
  15. synovial fluid is secreted by synovial membrane
  16. seams, occur in between bones of the skull, interlock with short connective tissue
  17. closed sutures are called ____
  18. peg in socket "tooth in socket" are examples of___
  19. bar or palate of hyaline cartilage uniting bone
    ex. epipsysial plate
  20. syndesmosis, symphysis are examples of
    types of amphiarthroses
  21. bones connected by ligaments cords or bands of fibrous tissue, amount of movement is determined by length of connecting fibers
    ex. between tibula and fibia
  22. when articular surfaces of the bone are covered with articular cartilage(hyaline) acts as shock absorber, designed for strength with flexibility
    ex. inbetween vertebrae, pubic synthesis
  23. usually flate articulation, allow short gliding movement
    ex. in between carpels and tarsals
  24. one concave surface and one convex ONLY permits flexion and extension
    ex. knee joint, elbow joint
    hinge joint
  25. allows for rotation, atlas bone
    ex head side to side to say "no"
    pivot joint
  26. over articular surface of one bone fits into a complementary depression in another, allows for circumduction, abduction and adduction
    ex. inbetween carpels
    ellipsoidal joint ( aka condyloid joint)
  27. allows for side to side and back and forth motion
    ex. thumb
    saddle joint
  28. shoulder and hip joint
    allows for flexion extension abduction adduction and rotation
    ball and socket joint
  29. largest and most complex, three joints in one
    knee joint
  30. between patella and the lower end of the femur
  31. between tibia and femur
  32. disk or ligament inbetween tibia and fibia
  33. most freely moveable joint in the body, ball and socket joint, head of humerus fits into gelnoid cavity of scapula, tendons that cross shoulder joints give stability, has rotator cuff made of four tendons
    shoulder (glenohumeral) joint
  34. tsubscapularis, suprapintis, infraspintis, and teres minor are_______
    the four tendons in the rotator cuff
  35. allows flexion and extension ONLY radius and ulna articulate with the condyles of the humerus
    elbow joint
  36. ball and socket joint, includes spherical head of femur with acetabulum of hip bone
    hip joint
  37. easiest to break.... jaw joint, mandibular condyle articulates with the inferior surface of squamous temporal bone
    tempromandibular joint (TMJ)
  38. mostly involve meniscus from compression and stress
    cartilage tear
  39. ligaments reinforcing a joint are stretched or torn
  40. bones are forces out of alighnment
    ex. involved in sports
  41. inflammation of the bursa caused by a blow or friction (water in the knee)
  42. inflammation of tendon sheaths (doesnt swell up too much)
  43. pain stiffness and swelling of joint, inflammatory disorder, synocial membrane thickens and fluid production decreases causing friction and pain
  44. most common, chronic and degenerative, wear and tear arthritis, most prevalent in elders more women than men osteophytes
  45. chronic inflammatory disorder, can occur at any age more in women than in men joint tenderness and stiffness autoimmune disease
    rheumatoid arthritis
  46. urate crystals caused by uric acid are deposited in the soft tissues of joints causes painful attack of gout more men than in women
    gouty arthritis
  47. inflammatory disease caused by spirochete bacteria transmitted by bites of ticks that live on mice or deer
    lyme disease
  48. to filter the hazerdous nitrogenous wastes from the breakdown of proteins such as creatinine and urea
  49. to reabsorb the water lost during filtration
  50. to concentrate and remove in liquid form
  51. retroperitoneal organs (outside the periteneal)
  52. little notch where the uriter comes out
  53. most inner layer of the outside covering protects from infection
    renal capsule
  54. middle layer cushions the kidney and holds it into place
    adipose capsule
  55. outer most layer binds the kidneys to the surrounding structures
    renal fascia
  56. forms the columns
  57. inner region of the kidney
  58. formed from medulla (triangle structures)
  59. leads to calyces (found at bases of pyramids)
  60. between each pyramid
  61. where our urine collects
  62. (part of kidney) urine empties into the pelvis and leads to the urider
  63. cortical nephron, juxtamedullary nephrons are types of ____
  64. stays in cortex doesnt do anything
    cortical nephrons
  65. dips down into the medulla
    juxtamedullary nephron
  66. in cortex of the kidney, surrounds the glomerulus, site of filtration of the blood
    bowmans (glomerulus) capsule
  67. network of capillaries surrounded by the bowmans capsules fite of filtration
  68. mostly in cortex, where most of the water is reabsorbed by obligatory water reabsorbtion
    diabetes insyphelis (doesnt reabsorb water)
    proximal convoluted tubule (PCT)
  69. goes down into the medulla pyramids
    descending limb of the loop of henle
  70. near the papillae
    loop of henle
  71. up through the pyramids
    asending limb of the loop of henle
  72. away from the bowmans capsule
    distal convoluted tubule (DCT)
  73. collects urine from the several distal collecting tubes
    collecting ducts
  74. microscope structure compoesd of jutaglomerular cells (j cells) containing renin when bllod pressure drops the jp cells secrete renin, renin removes amino acides from angiotensinogen to form angiotensin I.
    juxtaglomerular apparatus
  75. ____ goes to the lungs and angiostemine converting enzymes convert it to angiotensin II
    angiotensin I
  76. vasoconstruction to raise blood pressure, reduce renal flow but maintaining
  77. glomerular filtration rate and wast secretion, increases tubular reabsorbtion of water, stimulates adrenal cortex to secrete aldosterone, hypothalmus to stimulate thirst
    angiotensin II
  78. in the wall of the distal convoluted tubule which detects the changes in solute concentrations and the flow through nephrons
    macula densa cells
  79. blood enters kidneys, enters glomerulus and blood pressure forces water and solutes through wall of capillaries and bowmans capsules
    filtration of blood
  80. now the water and solutes are in the nephron
    filtrate, amount of filtrate =125 mL/min. (4oz/min.)
    filtration of blood
  81. rate of filtration
    glomerular filtration rate (GFR)
  82. GFR/RPF(renal plasma flow)
    filtration fraction
  83. parts that are needed: water, glucose, amion acids, ions. need to concentrate the urine, most of the reabsorption takes place in the proximal convoluted tubule and the descending limb of the loop of henle
    reabsorption of parts of filtrate
  84. glucose, amion acids, sodium are removed from the filtrate by active transport via carrier molecule in the pct
    tubular reabsorption
  85. the removal of sodium will set up a concentration gradien and the water molecules in the pct will leave, this leaves the filtration with mostly sodium, chorine, and urea
    obligatory water reabsorption
  86. involves passive removal of water by setting up concentrations and membrane characteristics
    facultative water reabsorption
  87. passively allows water to leave
    desending limb
  88. sodium and chorine are actively removed
    ascending limb
  89. water is removed from desending limbe
  90. method of ridding the body of wastes and controls pH
    potassiumm ions (too much results in cardiac arrest)
    hydrogen ions (acidosis)
    ammonia (NH3)
    tubular secretions
  91. control of reabsorption is by antidiuretic hormone (ADH) which controls the permeability of DCT and CT to water
    main components
  92. urine is more dilute which means
    no ADH
  93. urine is more concentrated when you have ____
  94. ____ tubes lead to the bladder gravity and pressure controlled
  95. expandable sac with receptors
    urinary bladder
  96. (200-400 mL) two cups
    no control
    internal sphincter
  97. voluntary override
    external sphincter
  98. tube to the external enviornment
  99. medical process through which a persons blood is cleansed of the toxins the kidneys normally would flush out
  100. occurs when urate crystals accumulate around the joint normally uric acid dissovles in your blood and passes thoguh our kidneys into your urine, however sometime your body either produces too much uric acid or kidneys excrete too little uric acid, then the uric acid builds up
Card Set:
anatomy test two
2012-04-01 20:07:02
anatomy physiology

joints and urinary chapter
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