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2012-04-03 20:51:24
functional anatomy

Show Answers:

  1. What type of muscle is involuntary, and nonstriated?

    bladder, uterus, digestive tract
  2. What type of muscle is involuntary and striated?
  3. What type of muscle is voluntary and striated?
  4. What are muscle fibers composed of?
    motor and sensory fibers
  5. What is a fasciculi?
    bundles of fibers within the epimysium
  6. What separates individual muscle fibers?
  7. What binds fasciculi together?
  8. What is epimysium?
    fibrous CT covering the entire muscle
  9. What is a thin filament?
  10. What is a thick filament?
  11. What is the sliding filament theory?
    within each sarcomere (z lines), during muscle contractions the actin (I band) slides over the myosin (A band) causing the two lines to approach each other

    • myosin filaments remain stationary
    • thin filaments slides over the thick (actin slides over myosin)
  12. What type of fibers carry a high capacity for oxygen, are stabilty muscles, good for endurance (marathons), and produce a low amt of tension?
    red fibers=tonic=slow twitch=type 1
  13. What type of fibers are used for aerobic or anerobic exercises?
    intermediate fibers=type 2A
  14. What type of fibers are anerobic, theyre quick and powerful and produce a lot of tension in a short period of time (fatigue quickly), and are used in high intensity exersice with vigorous activity?
    white fibers=phasic=fast twitch=type 2B
  15. What runs longitudinally through the muscle fiber, and consists of two kinds of smaller structures which are called myofilaments (proteins)?
  16. What is the I band? thick or thin?
    actin - thin
  17. What is the A band? thick or thin?
    myosin - thick
  18. What is a proximal attachment of a muscle; during contraction insertion moves toward origin?
    origin - stable bone
  19. What moves toward the stable bone and is usually more distal attachment of a muscle?
  20. What happens if the insertion is fixed (origin moves toward insertion)?
    reverse muscle action
  21. What are 7 things that can help give you information about a muscle by its name?
    • 1. location (tibialis anterior, rectus abdomis)
    • 2. shape (trapezius, serratus anterior)
    • 3. action (extensor carpi ulnaris)
    • 4. # of heads of divisions (triceps, biceps)
    • 5. attachment/origin/insertion (SCM)
    • 6. direction of fibers (int/ext oblique)
    • 7. size of muscle (pec major and minor)
  22. Muscle fibers are arranged in what 2 directions to a long axis?
    • parallel
    • oblique
  23. What are the characteristics of parallel muscle fiber arrangements?
    • longer
    • greater ROM potential
  24. What are the characteristics of an oblique muscle fiber arrangement?
    • shorter
    • more fibers per area
    • greater strength potential
    • smaller ROM
  25. What 4 types of muscle fiber arrangements are parallel?
    • strap
    • fusiform
    • rhomboidal
    • triangular
  26. What 4 types of muscle fiber arrangements are oblique?
    • unipennate
    • bipennate
    • multipennate
  27. What type of muscle fiber arrangement consists of muscles with long and thin fibers running the entire length? examples?

    • sartorius
    • SCM
    • rectus abdomis
  28. What is a fusiform muscle arrangement? examples?
    muscle is wider in middle and tapers at ends

    • biceps
    • brachialis
    • brachioradialis
  29. What type of muscle fiber arrangement is 4 sided and usually flat with broad attachments at the ends? examples?

    • rhomboids
    • pronator teres
    • gluteus maximus
  30. What is a triangular muscle arrangement? examples?
    flat and fan shaped with fibers radiating from narrow attachment to broad attachment

    pectoralis major
  31. What type of muscle fiber arrangement is a series of short fibers attaching diagonally along the length of a central tendon? example?

    tibialis posterior
  32. What type of muscle fiber arrangement has fibers that are obliquely attached to both sides of a central tendon? examples?

    • interossei
    • gastrocnemius
  33. What is a multipennate muscle arrangement? examples?
    many tendons with fibers inbetween

  34. What is a normal resting length?
    muscle is at rest
  35. What is a muscles ability to respond to a stimulus?

    contracts when stimulated, motor nerve or electrical unit
  36. What is a muscles ability to shorten or contract which produces tension between both of its ends?

    muscle shortens, stays the same, or lengthens
  37. What is the ability of a muscle to stretch or lengthen when a force is applied?
  38. What is a muscles ability to recoil or return to a normal resting length when a stretching or shortening force is removed?
  39. What is a force build up within muscles?
  40. What is excursion?
    distance from max elongation to max shortening
  41. What happens when a muscle reaches a point where it cant shorten or contract any further?
    active insufficiency

    occurs to agonist
  42. What happens when a muscle cant be elongated or stretch any further without damage?
    passive insufficiency

    occurs to antagonist
  43. What normally happens first, active or passive insufficiency?
    agonist usually becomes actively insufficient before the antagonist becomes passively insufficient
  44. What is the tendon action of a muscle?
  45. What is the agonist?
    • muscle causing motion
    • prime mover
    • muscle shortening
  46. What is the antagonist?
    • opposite of agonist
    • muscle that causes opposite motion of the agonist
  47. What is a muscle or group of muscles that supports a part and allows the agonist to work more efficiently?
  48. What is the muscle that works with another muscle to enhance a particular motion?