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What type of muscle is involuntary, and nonstriated?
bladder, uterus, digestive tract
What type of muscle is involuntary and striated?
What type of muscle is voluntary and striated?
What are muscle fibers composed of?
motor and sensory fibers
What is a fasciculi?
bundles of fibers within the epimysium
What separates individual muscle fibers?
What binds fasciculi together?
What is epimysium?
fibrous CT covering the entire muscle
What is a thin filament?
What is a thick filament?
What is the sliding filament theory?
within each sarcomere (z lines), during muscle contractions the actin (I band) slides over the myosin (A band) causing the two lines to approach each other
- myosin filaments remain stationary
- thin filaments slides over the thick (actin slides over myosin)
What type of fibers carry a high capacity for oxygen, are stabilty muscles, good for endurance (marathons), and produce a low amt of tension?
red fibers=tonic=slow twitch=type 1
What type of fibers are used for aerobic or anerobic exercises?
intermediate fibers=type 2A
What type of fibers are anerobic, theyre quick and powerful and produce a lot of tension in a short period of time (fatigue quickly), and are used in high intensity exersice with vigorous activity?
white fibers=phasic=fast twitch=type 2B
What runs longitudinally through the muscle fiber, and consists of two kinds of smaller structures which are called myofilaments (proteins)?
What is the I band? thick or thin?
actin - thin
What is the A band? thick or thin?
myosin - thick
What is a proximal attachment of a muscle; during contraction insertion moves toward origin?
origin - stable bone
What moves toward the stable bone and is usually more distal attachment of a muscle?
What happens if the insertion is fixed (origin moves toward insertion)?
reverse muscle action
What are 7 things that can help give you information about a muscle by its name?
- 1. location (tibialis anterior, rectus abdomis)
- 2. shape (trapezius, serratus anterior)
- 3. action (extensor carpi ulnaris)
- 4. # of heads of divisions (triceps, biceps)
- 5. attachment/origin/insertion (SCM)
- 6. direction of fibers (int/ext oblique)
- 7. size of muscle (pec major and minor)
Muscle fibers are arranged in what 2 directions to a long axis?
What are the characteristics of parallel muscle fiber arrangements?
- greater ROM potential
What are the characteristics of an oblique muscle fiber arrangement?
- more fibers per area
- greater strength potential
- smaller ROM
What 4 types of muscle fiber arrangements are parallel?
What 4 types of muscle fiber arrangements are oblique?
What type of muscle fiber arrangement consists of muscles with long and thin fibers running the entire length? examples?
- rectus abdomis
What is a fusiform muscle arrangement? examples?
muscle is wider in middle and tapers at ends
What type of muscle fiber arrangement is 4 sided and usually flat with broad attachments at the ends? examples?
- pronator teres
- gluteus maximus
What is a triangular muscle arrangement? examples?
flat and fan shaped with fibers radiating from narrow attachment to broad attachment
What type of muscle fiber arrangement is a series of short fibers attaching diagonally along the length of a central tendon? example?
What type of muscle fiber arrangement has fibers that are obliquely attached to both sides of a central tendon? examples?
What is a multipennate muscle arrangement? examples?
many tendons with fibers inbetween
What is a normal resting length?
muscle is at rest
What is a muscles ability to respond to a stimulus?
contracts when stimulated, motor nerve or electrical unit
What is a muscles ability to shorten or contract which produces tension between both of its ends?
muscle shortens, stays the same, or lengthens
What is the ability of a muscle to stretch or lengthen when a force is applied?
What is a muscles ability to recoil or return to a normal resting length when a stretching or shortening force is removed?
What is a force build up within muscles?
What is excursion?
distance from max elongation to max shortening
What happens when a muscle reaches a point where it cant shorten or contract any further?
occurs to agonist
What happens when a muscle cant be elongated or stretch any further without damage?
occurs to antagonist
What normally happens first, active or passive insufficiency?
agonist usually becomes actively insufficient before the antagonist becomes passively insufficient
What is the tendon action of a muscle?
What is the agonist?
- muscle causing motion
- prime mover
- muscle shortening
What is the antagonist?
- opposite of agonist
- muscle that causes opposite motion of the agonist
What is a muscle or group of muscles that supports a part and allows the agonist to work more efficiently?
What is the muscle that works with another muscle to enhance a particular motion?