Forearm

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Author:
Omidancer1
ID:
144830
Filename:
Forearm
Updated:
2012-04-11 07:33:17
Tags:
Forearm
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Description:
Forearm
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  1. Posterior Superficial Muscles
    • Brachioradialis
    • Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus
    • Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis
    • Extensor Digitorum
    • Extensor Digit Minimi
    • Extensor Carpi Ulnaris
  2. Posterior Deep Muscles
    • Supinator
    • ABductor Pollicis Longus
    • Extensor Pollicis Longus
    • Extensor Pollicis Brevis
    • Extensor Indicis
  3. Outcropping Muscles
    • Go over other muscle tendons
    • Abductor pollicis longus
    • Extensor pollicis longus
    • Extensor pollicis brevis
  4. Brachioradialis
    • Proximal Attachment: Lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus
    • Distal Attachment: Lateral surface of radius proximal to styloid process
    • Innervation: Radial n. (C5–C7)
    • Main Actions: Relatively weak flexion of forearm; maximal when forearm is in mid-pronated position; brings forearm to mid-pronation
  5. Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus (ECRL)
    • Proximal Attachment: Lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus
    • Distal Attachment: Dorsal aspect of base of second metacarpal
    • Innervation: Radial n. (C6–C7)
    • Main Actions: Extend and radial deviates (ABducts) wrist; weak elbow flexor; active during fist clenching
  6. Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis (ECRB)
    • Proximal Attachment: Lateral epicondyle of humerus (common extensor tendon)
    • Distal Attachment: Dosral aspect of base of third metacarpal
    • Innervation: Deep branch of radial n. (C7–C8)
    • Main Actions: Extend and radial deviates (ABducts) wrist
  7. Extensor Digitorum (ED)
    • Proximal Attachment: Lateral epicondyle of humerus (common extensor tendon)
    • Distal Attachment: Extensor expansions over medial four digits
    • Innervation: Posterior interosseous n. (C7–C8)
    • Main Actions: Extends medial four digits primarily at MCP joints, secondarily at IP joints with help from lumbricals
  8. Extensor Digiti Minimi (EDM)
    • Proximal Attachment: Lateral epicondyle of humerus (common extensor tendon)
    • Distal Attachment: Extensor expansion of 5th digit
    • Innervation: Posterior interosseous n. (C7–C8)
    • Main Actions: Extends 5th digit primarily at MCP joint, secondarilyt at IP joints; assists extensor digitorum; weak elbow extension
  9. Extensor Carpi Ulnaris (ECU)
    • Proximal Attachment: Lateral epicondyle of humerus; posterior border of ulna via shared aponeurosis
    • Distal Attachment: Dorsal aspect of base of 5th metacarpal
    • Innervation: Posterior interosseous n. (C7–C8)
    • Main Actions: Extends and ulnar deviates (ADducts) wrist (also active during fist clenching)
  10. Supinator
    • Proximal Attachment: Lateral epicondyle of humerus; radial collateral and annular ligaments; supinator fossa; supinator crest of ulna
    • Distal Attachment: Superior lateral radius
    • Innervation: Posterior interosseous n. (C7–C8)
    • Main Actions: Supinates forearm
  11. Abductor Pollicis Longus (APL)
    • Proximal Attachment: Posterior surface of proximal halves of ulna, radius, and interosseous membrane
    • Distal Attachment: Base of first metacarpal
    • Innervation: Posterior interosseous n. (C7–C8)
    • Main Actions: ABducts thumb at carpometacarpal joint; some weak extension
  12. Extensor Pollicis Longus (EPL)
    • Proximal Attachment: Middle posterior surface of ulna and interosseous membrane
    • Distal Attachment: Dorsal aspect of base of distal phalanx of thumb
    • Innervation: Posterior interosseous n. (C7–C8)
    • Main Actions: Extends distal phalnx of thumb at IP joint; extends metacarpophalangeal and carpometacarpal joint
    • Uses Lister's tubercle as a pulley
  13. Extensor Pollicis Brevis (EPB)
    • Proximal Attachment: Posterior surface of distal third of radius and interosseous membrane
    • Distal Attachment: Dorsal aspect of base of proximal phalanx of thumb
    • Innervation: Posterior interosseous n. (C7–C8)
    • Main Actions: Extends proximal phalanx of thumb at metacarpalphalangeal joint; extends carpometacarpal joint
  14. Extensor Indicis
    • Proximal Attachment: Distal posterior surfaces of ulna and interosseous membrane
    • Distal Attachment: Extensor expansior of second digit
    • Innervation: Posterior interosseous n. (C7–C8)
    • Main Actions: Extends second digit and helps extend hand at wrist
  15. Anatomical Snuff Box
    • Laterally/anteriorly: tedons of ABductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevis
    • Medially/posteriorly: tendon of extensor pollicis longus
    • Contents: Radial artery; radial styloid process; base of 1st metacarpal; scaphoid; trapezium
  16. Anterior Compartment Superficial Muscles
    • Pronator Teres
    • Flexor Carpi Radialis
    • Palmaris Longus
    • Flexor Carpi Ulnaris
    • Pretty Flower Pretty Flower
  17. Anterior Compartment Intermediate Muscles
    Flexor Digitorum Superficialis
  18. Anterior Compaterment Deep Muscles
    • Flexor Digitorum Profundus
    • Flexor Pollicis Longus
    • Pronator Quadratus
  19. Pronator Teres
    • Proximal Attachment: Ulnar head: side of coronoid process; Humeral head: medial epicondyle of humerus (common flexor tendon)
    • Distal Attachment: Middle lateral surface of radius
    • Innervation: Median n. (C6–C7) (goes between heads)
    • Main Actions: Pronates and flexes forearm (at elbow)
  20. Flexor Carpi Radialis (FCR)
    • Proximal Attachment: Medial epicondyle of humerus (common flexor tendon)
    • Distal Attachment: Ventral bases of 2nd and 3rd metacarpals
    • Innervation: Median n. (C6–C7)
    • Main Actions: Flexes and radial deviates (ABducts) wrist
  21. Palmaris Longus
    • Proximal Attachment: Medial epicondyle of humerus (common flexor tendon)
    • Distal Attachment: Distal half of flexor retinaculum and apex of palmar aponeurosis
    • Innervation: Median n. (C7–C8)
    • Main Actions: Flexes hand (at wrist) and tenses palmar aponeurosis
    • this tendon can be harvested for ligament repairs
    • superficial to palmar carpal ligament
  22. Flexor Carpi Ulnaris (FCU)
    • Proximal Attachment: Humeral head: Medial epicondyle of humerus (common flexor tendon); Ulnar head: olecranon just anterior to crest of ulna and side of trochlear notch
    • Distal Attachment: Pisiform, hook of hamate, base of 5th metacarpal
    • Innervation: Ulnar n. (C7–C8)
    • Main Actions: Flexes and ADducts hand (at wrist)
  23. Flexor Digitorum Superficialis (FDS)
    • Proximal Attachment: Humeroulnar head: medial epicondyle (common flexor tendon) and medial coronoid process; Radial head: Superior half of anterior border of radius
    • Distal Attachment: Shafts of middle phalanges of medial four digits
    • Innervation: Median n. (C7–T1)
    • Main Actions: Flexes middle phalanges at PIP joints and proximal phalanges at MCP joints; weak wrist flexion
  24. Flexor Digitorum Profundus (FDP)
    • Proximal Attachment: Proximal three quarters of medial and anterior surfaces or ulna and interosseous membrane
    • Distal Attachment: Bases of distal phalanges medial four digits
    • Innervation: Medial part (digits 4–5): Ulnar n. (C8–T1); Lateral part (digits 2–3): Anterior interosseous n. (C8–T1)
    • Main Actions: Flexes distal phalanges of medial four digits at DIP joints; flexes PIP and MCP joints and wrist
  25. Flexor Pollicis Longus (FPL)
    • Proximal Attachment: Middle anterior surface of radius and interosseous membrane
    • Distal Attachment: Base of distal phalanx of thumb
    • Innervation: Anterior interosseous n. (C8–T1)
    • Main Actions: Flexes phalanges of first digit (thumb) at IP, MCP, and CMC joints
  26. Pronator Quadratus
    • Proximal Attachment: Distal anterior surface of ulna
    • Distal Attachment: Distal anterior surface of radius
    • Innervation: Anterior interosseous n. (C8–T1)
    • Main Actions: Pronates forearm; deep fibers bind radius and ulna together
  27. Palmar Carpal Ligament
    • Radius to ulna
    • acts as a retinaculum to prevent flexor tendons from bow-stringing
  28. Radial a.
    • Runs with superficial radial n. deep to brachioradialis
    • Lateral to flexor carpi radialis in wrist
  29. Ulnar a.
    • Gives off common interosseous a.: gives off anterior and posterior interosseous aa.
    • Goes under tendon of flexor digitorum superficialis
    • Runs deep to FDS and superficial to FDP
    • Lateral to flexor carpi ulnaris in wrist
  30. Anterior interosseous a.
    • Stays up against anterior surface of interosseous membrane
    • Does not enter hand
  31. Posterior interosseous a.
    • Goes through interosseous membrane
    • Sits between deep and superficial extensors in posterior forearm
    • Runs with posterior interosseous nerve

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