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triplet code (2)
each sequence of the 3 bases equal an amino acid
-sequence is called a codon
What is a plasmid?
small, circular, self replicating DNA molecules found in bacteria cells.
-it is used to clone genes :can be made to incorporate a foreign piece of DNA that will be copie multiple times.
Recombinant DNA technology (3)
-takes DNA apart, analyze structure, and can combine it new ways.
-can alter human genes to correct genetic disease
-can cut and splice genes into bacteria, plants, and animals for our purpose
inserted DNA onto an individual for their benefit.
-It may help out a with dealing with pests.
makes millions of copies of small fragment DNA
-used to analyze DNA from crime scenes
-cant be used to clone a functional gene
one changes in a genes nucleotide base sequence
-critical to evolution
-causes the replacement with a single base nucleotide with another nucleotide of the genetic material
frame shift mutation
additional/deletion of one or more bases
-it is not evenly divisble by 3 thus it adds or inserts bases. makes sequence get all messed up
is a point mutation in which a single nucleotide is changed resulting in a codon that codes for a different amino acid
is a point mutation in a sequence of DNA that results in a premature stop codon
(Transcription steps) 1.
DNA unwinds when RNA polymerase opens the DNA molecule, starting on the TAC (start)
(Transcription steps) 2.
RNA polymerase moves down 1 strand of double helix, adding RNA nucleotides that compliment the DNA
(Transcription steps) 3.
this continues until RNA polymerase reaches a stop codon
Stop: ATT, ATC, or ACT in DNA
*many RNA polymerase can trasncribe a genes at the same time
(Translation steps) 1. (3)
-mRNA moves to the ribosome
-mRNA codon attaches to the A-site of ribosome
-mRNA is sandwiched between the large and small subunits
(Translation steps) 2.
corresponding tRNA attaches to ribosome at A-site
(Translation steps) 3.
mRNA/ tRNA shifts to the P-Site
(Translation steps) 4.
There the next corresponding tRNA comes to the ribosome, attaches to A-site by its matching codon
(Translation steps) 5.
peptide bond forms between the amino acids
-at this moment, amino acids on the tRNA at site P break free from the tRNA
(Translation steps) 6
then the tRNA and mRNA shift from A-site to P-site once again. the tRNA on the P-site falls off and goes to another corresponding amino acid
(Translation steps) 7
steps 4-6 repeat until a stop codon is reached
- the four boxes : Adenine, Thymine,
- Guanine, Cytosine
group of individuals of one species that live in the same geogrpahic area at the same time
group of organisms with similar structure, function, and behavior capable of interbreeding
earth much older than previously thought
-combines mendelian principles and natural selection
-combination of darwin theory and genetics
diversification of an organism into many different species