study guides 5 and 6 and 7

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study guides 5 and 6 and 7
2012-04-15 19:43:55

genetic, dna rep., dan structure. evolution
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  1. triplet code (2)
    each sequence of the 3 bases equal an amino acid

    -sequence is called a codon
  2. What is a plasmid?
    small, circular, self replicating DNA molecules found in bacteria cells.

    -it is used to clone genes :can be made to incorporate a foreign piece of DNA that will be copie multiple times.
  3. Recombinant DNA technology (3)
    -takes DNA apart, analyze structure, and can combine it new ways.

    -can alter human genes to correct genetic disease

    -can cut and splice genes into bacteria, plants, and animals for our purpose
  4. Transgenic Organism
    inserted DNA onto an individual for their benefit.

    -It may help out a with dealing with pests.
  5. PCR
    makes millions of copies of small fragment DNA

    -used to analyze DNA from crime scenes

    -cant be used to clone a functional gene
  6. Mutation
    one changes in a genes nucleotide base sequence
  7. Point mutation
    -critical to evolution

    -causes the replacement with a single base nucleotide with another nucleotide of the genetic material
  8. frame shift mutation
    additional/deletion of one or more bases

    -it is not evenly divisble by 3 thus it adds or inserts bases. makes sequence get all messed up
  9. Mis-sense mutation
    is a point mutation in which a single nucleotide is changed resulting in a codon that codes for a different amino acid
  10. Non-sense mutation
    is a point mutation in a sequence of DNA that results in a premature stop codon
  11. (Transcription steps) 1.
    DNA unwinds when RNA polymerase opens the DNA molecule, starting on the TAC (start)
  12. (Transcription steps) 2.
    RNA polymerase moves down 1 strand of double helix, adding RNA nucleotides that compliment the DNA
  13. (Transcription steps) 3.
    this continues until RNA polymerase reaches a stop codon

    Stop: ATT, ATC, or ACT in DNA

    *many RNA polymerase can trasncribe a genes at the same time
  14. (Translation steps) 1. (3)
    -mRNA moves to the ribosome

    -mRNA codon attaches to the A-site of ribosome

    -mRNA is sandwiched between the large and small subunits
  15. (Translation steps) 2.
    corresponding tRNA attaches to ribosome at A-site

    -start: AUG
  16. (Translation steps) 3.
    mRNA/ tRNA shifts to the P-Site
  17. (Translation steps) 4.
    There the next corresponding tRNA comes to the ribosome, attaches to A-site by its matching codon
  18. (Translation steps) 5.
    peptide bond forms between the amino acids

    -at this moment, amino acids on the tRNA at site P break free from the tRNA
  19. (Translation steps) 6
    then the tRNA and mRNA shift from A-site to P-site once again. the tRNA on the P-site falls off and goes to another corresponding amino acid
  20. (Translation steps) 7
    steps 4-6 repeat until a stop codon is reached
    • the four boxes : Adenine, Thymine,
    • Guanine, Cytosine

    sugars: deoxyribose
  21. population
    group of individuals of one species that live in the same geogrpahic area at the same time
  22. species
    group of organisms with similar structure, function, and behavior capable of interbreeding
  23. georges buffon
    earth much older than previously thought
  24. Synthetic theory
    -combines mendelian principles and natural selection

    -combination of darwin theory and genetics
  25. adaptive radiation
    diversification of an organism into many different species

    -creates linages