Card Set Information
Ankle Joint & Foot chapters
What is the only true weight bearing bone of the leg?
What are the 3 types of bone in the foot?
How are the metatarsals numbered?
1 thru 5
Which of the metatarsals are weight bearing bones?
1 & 5
we tend to stand on a ___________
Weight is borne from the base of the _________ to the heads of the ___________
1st & 5th metatarsals
What 3 parts can the foot be divided into?
What is the hindfoot made up of?
In the gait cycle the hindfoot is the part of the foot that does what?
makes contact with the ground influencing the function and movement of the other 2 parts
The midfoot is made up of what?
3 cuneiform bones
What does the midfoot do?
provides stability and mobility as it transmits movement from the hindfoot to the forefoot
What is the forefoot made up of?
all of the phalanges
What does the forefoot do?
adapts to the level of the ground
Which part of the foot is the last part to make contact with the ground during stance phase?
What are the 3 main functions performed by the ankle and foot?
shock absorber as the heel strikes the ground at the beginning of the stance phase
adapts to the level or unevenness of the ground
provides a stable base of supprt from which to propel the body forward
What is the motion associated with plantar flexion?
toes go toward ground
i.e. - putting out a cigarette, putting toes in dirt
What is the motion associated with dorsi flexion?
toes come toward the shin
In which plane and axis do both plantar flexion and dorsi flexion occur?
What is the motion associated with eversion (pronation)?
raising the lateral border of the foot
turning the forefoot outward
What is the motion associated with inversion (supination)?
raising the medial border of the foot
turning forefoot inward
Where do adduction and abduction occur?
primarily in the forefoot
What does adduction accompany?
What does abduction accompany?
In which plane does the movement in the forefoot occur?
What is the valgus position of the foot/ankle?
position where the distal segments is positioned away from the midline
What is the varus position of the foot/ankle joint?
position where the distal segment moves toward the midline
What is the Calcaneal Valgus position of the foot/ankle joint?
position where the distal part of the calcaneous is angled away from the midline
What are the 2 joints with little motion that aren't part of the true ankle joint but play a small role in the proper function of the ankle?
superior/inferior tibiofibular joints
What makes up the superior tibiofibular joint?
articulation b/t the head of the fibula and posterior lateral aspec of the proximal tibia
What does the plane joint do?
allows small amount of gliding and rotatin of the fibula on the tibia
Which joint in the ankle has a joint capsule?
What reinforces the capsule in the synovial joint?
The capsule and synovial joint dissipate what?
torsional stresses applied at the ankle joint
What is the inferior tibiofibular?
syndesmosis (fibrous) union b/t the concave distal tibia and convext distal fibula
Is the inferior tibiofibular a synovial joint?
Is the inferior tibiofibular have a joint capsule?
In the inferior tibiofibular ________ separates bones and __________ hold the joint together
Much of the ankle joint's strength depends upon what?
a strong union at this joint
The true ankle joint (talocrural or talotibial) is made up of what?
distal tibia that sits on the talus with the medial malleolus of the tibia fitting down around the medial asect of the talus
lateral malleolus of the fibula that fits down around the lateral aspect
What makes up the mortise of the tenon & mortise joint?
mlleoli of the tibia/fibula
What makes up the tenon of the tenon & mortise joint?
Which joint connects the leg and the foot and is responsible for controlling the majority of foot motion relative to the leg?
true ankle joint - talocrural or talotibial
The ankle is what kind of joint?
uniaxial hinge joint
The ankle consists of articulation between what?
distal end and medial malleoulus of the tibia & the lateral malleolus of the fibula with the talus
The ankle joint allows how many degrees of plantar flexion?
The ankle joint allows how many degrees of dorsiflexion?
What position is the ankle in when in anatomical position?
At what angle is the axis of rotation of the ankle?
Why is the ankle's axis of rotation considered triplanar?
b/c of motion around an obligquely oriented axis that passes thru all 3 planes
At the ankle's axis of rotation, which malleolus extends more distally and lies more posteriorly than the other?
lateral more than medial
The axis of the ankle joint tips approximately 8 degrees from which plane?
The axis of the ankle joint tips approximtely 82 degrees from which plane?
The axis of the anklejoint tips approximately 20 to 30 degrees from which plane?
During dorsiflexion the foot does what?
comes up and out slightly (abduction)
During plantar flexion the foot does what?
goes down and slightly in (adduction)
What is the open kinetic chain motion at the ankle joint?
leg fixed and the foot free to move
angle of the joint causes the foot to abduct during dorsi flexion and adduct during planar flexion
Which motion at the ankle joint occurs when the foot is fixed on the ground and the leg moves over it?
During dorsiflexion the leg does what?
medially rotates on the foot caused by the angle of the joint
During ankle plantar flexion the leg does what?
laterally rotates on the foot
Why is the leg rotation during ankle plantar flexion allowed?
b/c of the slight movement that is possible at hte tibiofibular joint
What does the convex talus do during ankle plantar flexion?
glides posteriorly on the concave tibia
What are the end feels for both dorsi and plantar flexion?
Why are the end feels for both dorsi and plantar flexon considered soft tissue stretch?
b/c of the tension in the joint capsule, ligaments, and tendons
What makes up the subtalar or talocalaneal joint?
bottom of talus on top of the calcaneous
What kind of joint is the subtalar or talocalaneal joint?
plane synovial joint with 1 degree of freedom
Where does inversion/eversion occur in the subtalar or talocalaneal joint?
at an oblique axis
What makes up the transverse tasal joint - midtarsal?
front part of calcaneus and talus articulating with the cuboid and navicular
How much movement occurs b/t the nav. and calca. in the transverse tarsal joint - midtarsal?
Movement in the transverse tarsal joint links what?
the hindfoot and forefoot in eversion/inversion
What motions are involved in inversion at the subtalar and transtarsal joints?
includes a combination of abduction, pronation, and plantar flexion
What motions are involved in inversion at the subtalar and transtarsal joints?
includes a combination of adduction, pronation, and dorsiflexion
Where do plantar and dorsiflexion primarly occur in the ankle?
at the talocrural joint
When the ankle moves in inversion/eversion where do these motions occur?
at the subtalar/transverse tarsal joints
The combined motions of all of the joints in the ankle allow the foot to do what?
assume almost any position in space
adapt to any irregular surface
Point of reference for adduction/abductin in the foot joints is where?
2nd toe which abducts in both directions but adducts only returning from abduction
Joints metatarsal heads articulate with what?
The 5 MTP joints allow what motions?
Which MTP joint is the most mobile?
1st MTP joint
The 1st MTP joints allows approximately 45 degrees of what?
The 1st MTP joint allows approximately 90 degres of what?
In what phase of walking is hyperextension extremely important?
toe off phase
Each of the lesser toes (2-5) have what kinds of joints?
Proximal interphalangeals (PIP)
distal interphalangeals (DIP)
Are the PIP and DIP in the foot as important as the ones in the hand?
How many phalangeal joints are in the thumb and which ones?
1 - IP interphalangeal joint
Which joint in the ankle is rather thin anteriorly and posteriorly bu reinforcedby collateral ligaments on both sides?
The collateral ligament on the medial side is of the ankle joint is a triangular deltoid ligament whose apex is where?
located along the tip of the medial malleolus
The deltoid ligament spreads out and attaches where?
to the talus, navicular, and calcaneus in 4 parts
To allow the functions of the feet to occur the bones of the foot are arranged with what?
How many arches are located between the calaneus to the heads of the 1st and 5th metatarsals?
2 - medial & lateral longitudinal
The medial arch makes up the medial border of the foot running from where and to what?
from the calcaneus anteriorly thru the talus, navicular, and 3 cuneiforms anteriorly to the 1st 3 metatarsals
What is at the top of the arch?
Why is the talus referred to as the keystone of the arch?
b/c it receives the weight of the body
What does the arch do during weight?
depresses somewhat - bearing thn recoils when weight is removed
Where does the lateral longitudinal arch run from and to?
from the calcaneus anteriorly thru the cuboid to the 4th, 5th metatarsals
Where does the lateral longitudinal arch rest during weight bearing?
on the ground
Where does the transverse arch run from and to?
from side to side thru the 3 cuneiforms to the cuboid
What is the keystone of the transverse arch?
the 3 arches are maintained by what?
the shape of their bones and relation to each other
the plantar liaments and fascia
what are the most important features of the arches?
ligaments ad fascia
What does the spring ligament support?
the medial side of the longitudinal arch
What is the longest of the tarsal ligaments?
long plantar ligament
where does the long plantar ligament attach?
posteriorly to the calcaneus and runs forward to attach on th cuboid and bases of the 3rd, 4th, and 5th metatarsals
What is the primary support of the lateral longitudinal arch?
long plantar ligament
Which ligament assists the long plantar arch and where does it attach?
short plantar ligament
attaches the calcaneus to the cuboid
What does the plantar fascia do?
acts as a tie rod keeping the calcaneus/talus from separating from the anterior tarsals/metatarsals head
increases the stability of the foot during weight bearing and walking
Total muscular support to the arches has been estimated to bear only about what percentage of the total stresses to the arches?
What makes up the stirrup of the foot?
peroneus longus & tibialis anterior mm
Where does the peroneus longus mm attach?
descends the leg latteral before crossing the foot medially to join the tibialis anterior muscle
Where does the tibialis anterior mm attach?
descends the leg medially to meet the peroneus longus mm forming a U or stirrup