ch 13 bio

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Danielvu28
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144998
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ch 13 bio
Updated:
2012-04-01 00:43:36
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13 bio
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ch 13 bio
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  1. What is the correct sequence of the transfer of information in most organisms?
    DNA to RNA to Protein
  2. What are 3 basic dogmas/theories of molecular biology?
    • VIRUSES SOMETIMES TRANSFER INFORMATION FROM DNA TO RNA
    • VIRUSES SOMETIMES TRANSFER INFORMATION FROM PROTEINS TO DNA
    • VIRUSES CAN TRANSLATE WITHOUT RNA
  3. Which components may be in DNA or RNA?
    PHOSPHATE GROUPS, CYTOSINE, GUANINE, ADENINE
  4. Which nucleotide distinguishes RNA from DNA?
    URACIL
  5. Where does transcription occur in eukaryotes?
    NUCLEUS
  6. What is produced during transcription?
    mRNA
  7. How would you describe the mRNA product of transcription?
    IT IS COMPLEMENTARY TO PART OF ONE STRAND OF DNA
  8. mRNA is transcribed from which molecule?
    DNA (active strand)
  9. How is the genetic code always read?
    3 BASES AT A TIME IN THE SAME DIRECTION
  10. What is a promoter?
    A BONDING SITE FOR RNA POLYMERASE
  11. Where does translation occur in eukaryotes?
    CYTOPLASM
  12. What happens during translation?
    THE CELL USES mRNA CODE TO MAKE PROTEINS.
  13. Which type of RNA brings the information in the genetic code from the nucleus to other parts
    of the cell?
    mRNA
  14. How many nucleotides are needed to specify three amino acids?
    9 (3 nucleotides per amino acid)
  15. There are 64 codons for 20 amino acids. How can this be?
    EACH AMINO ACID IS SPECIFIED BY ONLY ONE CODON (called redundancy).
  16. What determines the type of amino acid that is added to the growing polypeptide chain?
    THE CODON ON THE mRNA AND THE ANTICODON ON THE tRNA
  17. What does gene regulation accomplish in eukaryotes?
    CELL SPECIALIZATION
  18. Which of the following is only part of the prokaryotic genes?
    OPERON
  19. In E. coli, what does the lac operon control?
    BREAKDOWN OF LACTOSE
  20. How does the lac repressor turn off the lac genes?
    BY BINDING TO THE OPERATOR
  21. What regulates the expression of most eukaryotic genes?
    TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS
  22. What is the function of HOX genes?
    • THEY DETERMINE BODY PLAN
    • EXAMPLE – THEY DETERMINE THE LOCATION OF A DOG’S EARS
  23. In eukaryotes, which is involved in the regulation of genes?
    TATA BOX
  24. What is the impact of most every-day mutations?
    No effect on the organism
  25. What is a mutation called that involves one or a few nucleotides?
    POINT MUTATION
  26. Which type of mutation can be either gene-based or chromosomal-based?
    DELETION
  27. What happens during a deletion mutation?
    INFORMATION IS LOST
  28. What is an example of a chromosomal mutation?
    INVERSION
  29. What are some characteristics of polyploidy plants like strawberries?
    THEY TEND TO BE BIGGER AND STRONGER THAN DIPLOID PLANTS.

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