WRONG- only changes in the DNA of the sex cells can be inherited
Describe Darwin's Theory of Natural Selection
Chance variations occur thanks to mutation and recombination
If the variation is "selected for" by the environment, that individual will be more "fit" and more likely to survive to reproductive age
Survival of the fittest leads to an increase of those favorable genes in the gene pool.
Describe gene frequency
The decimal fraction representing the presence of an allele for all members of a population that have this particular gene locus.
The letter p is used for the frequency of the dominant allele
The letter q is used for the frequency of the recessive allele
p + q = 1
Describe the Hardy-Weinberg Principle
When the gene frequencies of a population are not changing, the gene pool is stable, and the population is not evolving. There is equalibrium between the genes in the gene pool.
The following conditions must be met:
1. the population is very large
2. there are not mutations that affect the gene pool
3. mating between individuals in the population is random
4. There is no net migration of individuals into or out of the population
5. The genes in the population are all equally successful at reproducing.
The Hardy-Weinberg equation
Name 5 deviations from the idealized conditions of the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium
Genetic Drift (called the founder effect in small populations)
The evolution of new species but not with members of other species.
What is a Deme?
A small local population.
ex: all the beavers along a specific portion of a river form a deme.
What is adaptive radiation?
The emergance of a number of lineages from a single ancestral species.
What is phylogeny?
evalutionary history- like a branching tree
What is convergent evolution?
Groups within the branches develop in similar ways when exposed to similar environments
ex: fish and dolphins resemble each other physically even though they are from different classes of vertebrates.
What is parallel evolution?
Those coming from the same stem but who live in similar although geographically separate environments, develop similar adaptations.
Who is Stanley L Miller?
Set out to demonstrate that the application of ultraviolet radiation, heat, or a combination of these to a mixture of methane, hydrogen, ammonia, and water could result in the formation of complex organic compounds.
The 4 basic categories of living organisms:
autotrophic anaerobes- chemosynthetic bacteria
autotrophic aerobes- green plants and photoplankton
heterotrophic anaerobes- yeasts
heterotrphic aerobes- amoebas, earthworms, and humans