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2012-04-05 17:47:25

Biology DAT 15
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  1. What are the 8 taxonomic classifactions?
    Kingdom, Phylum, Subphylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
  2. Name the 5 different kingdoms:
    Monera, Protista, Plantae, Fungi, Animalia
  3. Are Protista prokaryotes or eukaryotes?
  4. What are the cell walls of fungi composed of?
    Chitin, not cellulose (as in plants)
  5. Describe viruses
    • -do not carry out physiological or biological processes outside of a host
    • -nonliving but highly advanced
    • -have lytic and lysogenic life cycles
    • -contain either DNA or RNA
    • -called bacteriophages if they exclusively infect bacteria
  6. What is another name for blue-green algae?
  7. What are the morphological appearances of bacteria?
    • coccie- round
    • bacilli- rods
    • spirilla- spiral
    • some are:
    • dublexes-diplococci
    • clusters- staphylococci
    • chains- streptococci
  8. General Characteristics of all animals (metazoa):
    • differentiation of tissues, organs, and organ systems
    • alimentation
    • locomotion
    • bilateral symmetry
    • nervous system
    • chemical coordianting system
  9. What is the scientific name for:
    segmented worms
    • platyhelminthes
    • nematoda
    • annelida
  10. What is the most advanced subphylum of the chordates?
    Vertebrates- have a backbone
  11. Into which classes can vertebrates be divided?
    • Fish- 2 chambered heart, gills, external fertilization
    • Amphibia- adult has lungs, 3 chambered heart
    • Reptiles- 3 chambered heart, internal fertilization, poikilothermic (cold blooded)
    • Birds- 4 chambered heart, warm blooded
    • Mammals- monetremes, marsupials, placental
  12. Homologous
    • similar structure
    • same origin
  13. Analagous
    • similar structure
    • different origin
  14. What are some examples of vestigial structures?
    • In humans, the appendix
    • In humans, the tail
    • Splints on the legs of horse
    • legs reduced to useless bones on pythons
  15. Describe Lamarckian Evolution
    • use or disuse of the organ
    • inheritance of acquired characteristics
    • WRONG- only changes in the DNA of the sex cells can be inherited
  16. Describe Darwin's Theory of Natural Selection
    • Chance variations occur thanks to mutation and recombination
    • If the variation is "selected for" by the environment, that individual will be more "fit" and more likely to survive to reproductive age
    • Survival of the fittest leads to an increase of those favorable genes in the gene pool.
  17. Describe gene frequency
    • The decimal fraction representing the presence of an allele for all members of a population that have this particular gene locus.
    • The letter p is used for the frequency of the dominant allele
    • The letter q is used for the frequency of the recessive allele
    • p + q = 1
  18. Describe the Hardy-Weinberg Principle
    • When the gene frequencies of a population are not changing, the gene pool is stable, and the population is not evolving. There is equalibrium between the genes in the gene pool.
    • The following conditions must be met:
    • 1. the population is very large
    • 2. there are not mutations that affect the gene pool
    • 3. mating between individuals in the population is random
    • 4. There is no net migration of individuals into or out of the population
    • 5. The genes in the population are all equally successful at reproducing.
  19. The Hardy-Weinberg equation
  20. Name 5 deviations from the idealized conditions of the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium
    • Natural selection
    • Mutation
    • Assortive Mating
    • Genetic Drift (called the founder effect in small populations)
    • Gene Flow
  21. Describe speciation
    The evolution of new species but not with members of other species.
  22. What is a Deme?
    • A small local population.
    • ex: all the beavers along a specific portion of a river form a deme.
  23. What is adaptive radiation?
    The emergance of a number of lineages from a single ancestral species.
  24. What is phylogeny?
    evalutionary history- like a branching tree
  25. What is convergent evolution?
    • Groups within the branches develop in similar ways when exposed to similar environments
    • ex: fish and dolphins resemble each other physically even though they are from different classes of vertebrates.
  26. What is parallel evolution?
    Those coming from the same stem but who live in similar although geographically separate environments, develop similar adaptations.
  27. Who is Stanley L Miller?
    Set out to demonstrate that the application of ultraviolet radiation, heat, or a combination of these to a mixture of methane, hydrogen, ammonia, and water could result in the formation of complex organic compounds.
  28. The 4 basic categories of living organisms:
    • autotrophic anaerobes- chemosynthetic bacteria
    • autotrophic aerobes- green plants and photoplankton
    • heterotrophic anaerobes- yeasts
    • heterotrphic aerobes- amoebas, earthworms, and humans