A&P U: Kidney

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  1. Which kidney is lower than the other and why?
    the right kidney is slightly lower than the left due to liver placement
  2. What percentage of total mass of the kidney is needed for survival?

    - 15%

    - 20%

    - 25%
  3. List the functions of the kidneys

    they remove _______ waste material from the blood in the form of urine

    they keep body ______ in proper consistency and composition

    they regulate acid/____ ratio in blood and body

    regulate _____ volume

    increase blood pressure at anytime of system shock



  4. When sliced, the kidney will show _________ that can be readily identified
  5. The kidneys are approximately located by the paired set of the #__ ribs
  6. About 150-___ liters (4_ gallons) of blood are filtered by the kidneys in __ hrs
    180 liters, 45 gallons, 24 hours
  7. 1-1._ liters of urine is produced (about _ mL/min)
    1.8 liters, 1 mL/min
  8. As far as gross structure is concerned, what shape do kidneys have?
    bean shape
  9. Perirenal fat pad
    adipose tissue surrounding renal capsule
  10. Renal capsule
    transparent fibrous membrane closely attached to the surface of the kidney
  11. Cortex
    outer portion of the kidney

    paler in color when compared to the medulla

    contains most of the microscopic tubule

    contains blood supply
  12. Medulla
    inner portion of the kidney

    darker in color when compared to the cortex

    contains the renal pyramids which are separated by columns of Bertini/renal columns
  13. Calyx
    cup-like cavities

    these receive the renal pyramids

    they open into the renal pelvis

    plural word for them is calyces
  14. Renal pelvis
    all of the calyces joined together

    located in the renal sinus

    the expanded beginning of the ureter in the medial portion of the kidney
  15. Hydronephrosis
    abnormal amount of fluid or urine in the renal pelvis area

    causes entire nephron to become engorged

    atrophy sets in with distension of renal pelvis

    results from an obstructed ureter
  16. Pyelonephritis
    inflammation of kidney and renal pelvis with pus formation

    pain and tenderness of the loin area

    irritability of the bladder


    bloody urine (hematuria)

  17. Pyelitis
    inflammation of the renal pelvis and calyces with pus formation

    pain and tenderness of the loin area, irritability of the bladder


    bloody urine


    usually occurs in young children, mainly girls

    fecal matter is brought into the bladder and travels to the renal pelvis (Eww!)

    primary cause of E. coli
  18. Hilum
    indentation of tissue on the medial border where the vessels enter the structure
  19. Tubules
    thousands of microscopic tubes

    they collect the urine by filtration

    after filtration they transport it to the collecting ducts
  20. Nephron
    this is the functional unit pattern
  21. List all of the nephron components:


    proximal ______

    loop of _____ (nephronic loop)

    ______ tube

    _____ artery and vein (blood supply)

    proximal tubule

    loop of henle (nephronic loop)


    renal artery and vein (blood supply)
  22. Glomerulus
    capillary network where filtration takes place in the blood

    coiled tuft of capillaries

    these are found inside of Bowman's capsule
  23. Glomerulonephritis
    a serious inflammation of the renal glomeruli

    usually follows previous acute infection

    common cause is streptococcus pyogenes

    lesions can develop into carcinomas
  24. Bowman's capsule
    double wall chamber surrounding the glomerulus

    located in the cortex

    lined with podocytes which assist with urine filtration

    looks like an onion
  25. Renal dysplasia
    dysfunctional cell

    abnormal tissue growth
  26. Renal calculi
    abnormal concentrations of calcium, chemical salts, cholesterol in urine

    precipitation of fluid resulting in stones

    may lead t urinary tract infections (UTI)

    aka urinary calculi

    aka kidney stones
  27. Uremia
    indicates renal failure

    inflammatory disorder that can cause complete kidney failure

    caused by urine/urea in the blood via reabsorption

    may necessitate dialysis treatment or organ transplant

    leads to cerebral edema

    pulmonary edema



    hemorrhagic tendencies

    weakness and weight loss


  28. Polycystic kidney
    congenital anomaly

    tubules do not open into renal pelvis

    caused by autosomal recessive gene in children

    caused by autosomal dominant gene in adults

    eventually leads to renal failure and possible death by uremia
  29. Renal hypoplasia
    reduced number of cells

    underdeveloped cells
  30. hypernephroma
    carcinoma of the kidney

    primary symptom: hematuria

    it becomes Wilm's tumor in children 2-5 yrs old

    genetically connected to embryonic development

    if upon biopsy its a confirmed malignancy: adenosarcoma
  31. Hyperkalemia
    excessive potassium levels in the blood due to acute renal failure

    causes muscle weakness

    could slow cardiac muscles to a point of cardiac arrest
  32. Renal failure
    may be acute which is treatable

    may be chronic which may be fatal

    any factor that causes the kidneys to stop functioning

    these are chronic systemic signs of renal failure:

    respiratory system: deep sighing, urine smell to breath

    digestive system: ammonia taste in mouth, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea

    urinary system: pyuria, hematuria, albuminuria and cast

    nervous system: drowsiness, dim vision mental cloudiness, convulsions or coma
Card Set
A&P U: Kidney
A&P Urinary: Kidney
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