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  1. endemism
    one species found in certain area, not found in other areas
  2. biogeographic realms
    more uniform within regions than between them, caused from continental drift
  3. xenarthra
    • stem group 100MYA
    • moved when land was connected and evolved during the k/t boundary
  4. great american exchange
    3 mya north america and south america connected and dispersal of species
  5. range expansion or jump dispersal
    • brought sterlings to NY and they dispersed all the way to alaska
    • cattle went from europe to the neotropical, no movement from dispersal
  6. vicariance
    seperation of a continious population into several seperate populations due to barriers
  7. physical barriers of vicariance
    grand canyon, two squirrels found on opposite sides that used to be one species
  8. climate warming after ice age
    land bridge for mixing of species
  9. lemurs and chameleons
    evolved 60 MYA after breakup of gondwana endemic to madagascar

    chameleons moved via rafting
  10. long distance dispersal
    after break up of gondwana
  11. birds
    from theropods to birds would have been before the break up of gondwana
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