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  1. pull of recent
    sampling bias, as fossil record gets older its harder to obtain fossils from later years, whereas fossils that arent as old are easier to find
  2. rarefaction
    • normalized samples to avoid biasing species richness
    • extinction rate- over time decreases without looking at mass extinction
  3. end of permian
    • largest extinction, volcanic eruptions, global acid rain
    • 251 MYA
  4. end of ordovician
    • 439 MYA second largest
    • possibly due to global warming
  5. end of cretaceous
    • 65 MYA K/T boundary
    • large asteroid with changes in environment
  6. todays extinction
    loss of habitat, exotic predators
  7. overharvesting
    population crash which eventually causes extinction
  8. extinction of trilobites
    dead clade walking, some lineages diverge but then die off
  9. stochiastic
    mutations are random, probability 0 or 1, cat predict which gene copy will mutate
  10. not adaptively directed
    whether a gene will increase the fitness does not affect whether a mutation will occur
  11. base pair rate of mutation
    mutation per generation
  12. locus mutation rate
    mutations on a much larger scale than base pairs
  13. nondisjunction
    at meiosis can lead to reduced or unreduced gametes
  14. aneuploidy
    n +1 reduced gametes
  15. euploid
  16. polyploid
    fusion of unreduced gametes
  17. autopolyploid
    fusion of unreduced gametes from the same species
  18. allopolyploid
    fusion of gametes from different species
  19. translocation
    transfer of a segment to another nonhomologous chromosome
  20. fusion
    two homologous chromosomes become 1 can lead to balanced euploid species and start new species
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