Bio Sat2 Ch7

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Krudge
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145056
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Bio Sat2 Ch7
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2012-04-01 12:48:08
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Bio Sat2 Ch7
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Cracking evolution and diversity
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  1. heterotroph hypothesis
    The theory of original life on earth during a time when the atomosphere was mostly hydrogen, ammonia meathane and water.
  2. Heterotrophs
    • Cannont synthesize food.
    • The first cells were heterotrophs.
  3. Autotroph
    Synthesizes own food from solar energy
  4. Anaerobic organisms
    • Organisms that function without oxygen.
    • The early organisms were anaerobic, and then autotrophs produced oxygen as a waste product.
  5. Gene pool
    All the genes of the organisms in a population.
  6. Genetic variability
    The fact that each person in a population has a distinct set of genes.
  7. Random mutation of DNA
    The cause of genetic variability in organisms.
  8. Fossil record
    The evidence about history of life on earth.
  9. Evolution
    A change in population's gene pool.
  10. Natural selection
    The better competitors are better at staying alive, and they have a better chance of reproducing.
  11. Fitness
    An organisms ability to contribute to the next generation's genepool.
  12. Species
    A group of organisms that can produce fertle offspring together.
  13. Speciation
    Formation of a new species.
  14. Divergent evolution
    Organisms of the same species develope different behaviors and traits.
  15. Divereged
    Drifted apart.
  16. Homologous structure
    Similar structures in organisms, that dictate common ancestry.
  17. Convergent Evolution
    • Evolution that results in similar behavioral and physical traits between two separates populations/species.
    • Never leading to one species being formed out of two.
  18. Analogous structures
    Not structurely similar, but adapted through convergent evolution.
  19. Vestigial Structures
    Useless structures that were once used.
  20. Pyhlogeny
    • The organization of organisms by evolutionary traits.
    • Domain
    • Kingdom
    • Phylum
    • Class
    • Order
    • Family
    • Genus
    • Species
  21. Taxonomy
    The organization of orgaisms by evolutionary traits.
  22. Carolus Linnaeus
    Developed the binomial nomenclature.
  23. Binomial system
    • Classifing an orgaism by its genus and species.
    • Ie. Canis familiaris
  24. Domain bacteria
    • Includes prokaryotes, and ocmmon bacteria.
    • Includes Eubacteria, and within that Cynobacteria
    • aka blue-green algae.
    • Cynaobacteria can photosynthesize.
  25. Domain Archaea
    • Made up of prokaryotes in the Archaebacteria kingdom.
    • They have no nuclei or organelles, but have similar amino acid structures to eukarytoes.
    • Live in extreme environments.
  26. Extremophiles
    • Organisms that live in extremely harsh environments.
    • Ex. Archaebacteria.
  27. Extreme halophiles.
    • Live in extremely salty conditions.
    • halo = salty
  28. Extreme thermophiles
    • Live in extremely hot conditions
    • thermo =hot
  29. Methanogens
    • Extreme anaerobes that release methane has as a waste product.
    • Methan
  30. Domain Eukarya
    • Domain of Eukaryotes.
    • All contain nuclei, membrane-bound organelles, and linear DNA.
    • Divided into four main kingdoms.
    • Protista, Plantae, Fungi, and Animalia.
  31. Kingdom Protista
    • Eukaryotes, that ar mostly unicelular, some are in colonies, and some are multicellular, such as algae.
    • Basically in three main groups, protozoa, algae and fungus-like.
    • Contains Phylum:
    • Rhizopoda(Amoeba)
    • Apicomlexa (sporozoans)
    • Ciliophora (Ciliates)
    • Myxomycota and Acrasiomycota (Slime molds)
    • Euglenophyta (Euglena)
    • Bacilariophyta (Diatoms)
    • Phaeopyta( Brown Algae)
  32. Protozoa
    Animal-like protists
  33. Algae
    Plant-like protists
  34. Kingdom Plantae
    • All multicellular, eukaryotic, and photosynthetic.
    • In Divisions, instead of Phylum.
    • Grouped based on Nonvascular, or vascular.
    • Vascular is divided into seedles or seed plants.
    • Seed plants is divided into flowering plants or non-flowering plants.
  35. Nonvascular plants (division Byrophyta)
    • Lack Xylem and Phloem, the vascular tissue.
    • Have no roots, stems, or leaves.
    • They live in very wet enviroments.
    • Ie. Moss
  36. Vascular plants
    • Contain Xylem and phloem.
    • Have stems leaves and roots.
    • BAsed on what type they are they may have seeds or spores, and/ or flowers.
  37. Seedless plants. (Pterophyta) Ferns
    • Contain Xylem and phloem.
    • Have stems leaves and roots.
    • Have spores, not seeds.
    • Spores are scattered by the wind.
  38. Seed plants (Coniferophyta) Conifers
    • Conifer refers to the cones that carry seeds.
    • Contain Xylem and phloem.
    • Have stems leaves and roots.
    • No seed coat.
    • Mostly large ever-green trees.
  39. Gymnosperms
    Non-flowering plants
  40. Angiosperms
    flowering plants
  41. Xylem and Phloem
    Vascular plant tissue.
  42. Spores
    • Ferns have spores.
    • They are scattered by the wind.
  43. Monocot
    • A class of flowering plants, they are named for the single-seed leaves.
    • They have parallel veins in their leaves.
    • Mulitples of threes for flower parts.
    • A complex arangement in thier stems and fibrous roots.
  44. Dicot
    • A class of flowerin plants, they are named for thir two seed leave.
    • Netlike veins.
    • flower parts in multiples of four or five.
    • tissue in rings and taproot system.
  45. Cotyledons
    Seeded leaves.
  46. Kingdom Fungi
    • All Eukarytoic and aside from yeast, all multicellular.
    • Mostly have more then on nucleus, and are heterotrophic.
    • They are absorbiticve feeders.
    • They are decomposers.
    • Divisions are:
    • Zygomycota- common molds
    • Basidiomycota- club fungi ie. mushrooms.
  47. Kingdom Animalia
    • Animals are eukarytoic, multicellular, and heterotrophic.
    • Six phyla:
    • Porifera (Sponges)
    • Cnidaira (Coelenterates)
    • Platyhelminthes (Flatworms)
    • Mollusca (Mollusks)
    • Annelida (Segmented Worms)
    • Arthropoda (Arthropods)
    • Echniodermata (Echinoderms)
    • Chordata (Chordates)
  48. Sessile
    Non-moving
  49. Porifera (Sponges)
    Sessile animals with a perforated body made of two layers of cells
  50. Cnidaira (Coelenterates)
    Sponges with a central digestive system ie. jellyfish
  51. Platyhelminthes (Flatworms)
    Worms with heads ie. tapeworms
  52. Mollusca (Mollusks)
    • Soft-bodied, with an outer shell. Also octopi and squid.
    • They have a foot for movement
    • A visceral mass for housing organs.
    • A Mantle which may secrete a shell.
  53. Annelida (Segmented Worms)
    • Animals that have a closed circulation.
    • They excrete waste through metanephrida.
  54. Arthropoda (Arthropods)
    • Have jointed apendages, an exoskelaton, and a segmented body.
    • Excrete waste through Malpighian tubules.
    • Includes crustaceans, insects, and arachnids.
  55. Echniodermata (Echinoderms)
    • Slow-movind or sessile.
    • Have spiny exoskelotens.
    • Ie. sea urchins, sea stars.
  56. Chordata (Chordates)
    • Have a gollow notochord, a dorsal nerve cord, and a tail.
    • 6 classes- FARBM
    • Chondrichthyes- Cartiligous fish ie. sharks, stingrays
    • Osteichthyes- Bony fish ie. trout
    • Amphibia- Amphibians ie. frogs, salamanders
    • Reptilia- Reptiles ie. lizards, crocodiles
    • Aves- birdes ie. Owls penguins.
    • Mammalia- Mammals ie. humans kangaroos

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