Card Set Information
What is it called to take in food into the digestive tract?
What is the movement of food through the digestive tract?
What are 3 processes of mechanical digestion?
chewing, churning, segementation
What process of digestion occurs in the mouth?
What process of digestion occurs ibn the stomach?
Where does segementation occur?
What are the 2 processes of propulsion?
What 4 organs does peristalsis occur?
Where does swallowing occur?
What are the 6 processes of digestive system overall?
What is the catabolic breakdown of food?
What do the 4 ingredients we ingest break down to during chemical digestion?
carbohydrates = simple sugars
proteins = amino acids
lipids = fatty acids
nucleic acids = nucleotides
Where does chemical digestion begin?
in the mouth
What is the difference between perastalsis and segmentation?
of GI tract moves food
of GI tract move food
forward and backward
What is absorption?
movement of nutrients from GI tract to blood or lymph
What is the major absorption site?
What is the elimination of indigestable solid wastes?
Where does defecation occur?
What are 2 waste scenarios that would provide defecation?
indigestable food (fiber)
food that didn't get a chance to be absorbed
What are 2 things that control the GI tract?
mechano receprots and chemoreceptors
What meaqsures the stretchability of the GI tract?
What measures the pH and osmolarity of the GI tract?
What mix GI tract's lumen contents and move them along?
mechanoreceptors and chemoreceptors
What 2 factors control the regulation of digestion?
intrinsic and extrinsic
What is the gut brain?
What kind of factors are the central nervous system and autonmic nervous system (symp/parasymp) that act on the GI tract?
Which has shorter reflexes, intrinsic or extrinsic factors?
What 2 responses do the instrinsic and extrinsic factors have on the GI tract?
change in contractions or change in secretions
What are the 4 layers of tissue in the intestinal wall?
serosa / adventitia
What layer of the intestinal wall lines the lumen of the alimentary canal?
What are 3 major functions of the mucosa?
protect against infections
What are the 3 layers of the mucosa?
What is the connective tissue that anchors epithelium?
What does mucus protect the GI tract from?
mucus protects from the enzymes within the GI tract from digesting the organs when theyre digesting food
What are 2 functions of mucus in the GI tract?
protect from digestive enzymes harming organs
ease food along the tract
What type of tissue is the epithelial lining of the mucosa?
simple columnar epithelium
What secrete mucus in the GI tract?
What 2 things do the stomach and small intestine mucosa layer secrete?
enzymes and hormones
What is the connective tissue that nourishes and absorbs nutrients of the epithelium?
What does lamina propia contain that protects the GI tract from nfection?
What kind of cells is the muscularis mucosa of the intestinal wall made of?
What is the difference between loose and dense connective tissue?
loose connective tissue has less fibers than dense
What type of tissue is the submucosa layer of the intestinal wall made of?
dense connective tissue
What 4 things does connective tissue contain?
What 2 types opf smooth muscle make up the muscularis externa layer of the intestinal wall?
inner circular smooth muscle
outer longitudinal smooth muscle
What layer of the intestinal wall is responsible for peristalsis?
What happens if the muscularis externa layer of the intestinal wall thickens?
may form sphincters
What regulates how much food goes into each organ in order to prevent overfilling of that organs?
What layer of the intestinal wall is the protective visceral peritoneum?
What is the serosa replaces by in the esophagus?
What layers of the intestinal wall do retroperational organs have?
serosa AND adventitia
What layer of the intestinal wall anchors and supports the organs of the digestive tract?
What tissue is the oral cavity lines with?
stratified squamous epithelium
What are 2 other names for the mouth?
What are 5 muscles of the lips and cheeks (oral cavity)?
What 2 bones make up the hard palate?
palatine process of the maxilla
What are 3 functions of the tongue?
mixes food with saliva/ form bolus
What are the 3 salivary glands?
What 4 functions does saliva have?
enzymes that break down starch
What are the 4 functions of the mouth in the digestive system?
What is one way mechanical digestion occurs in the mouth?
What type of chemical digestion occurs in the mouth?
salivary amylase breaks down starch
What action in the mouth initiates propulsion?
What are 4 types of teeth the mouth has?
premolars / bicuspids
What are 2 parts of the pharynx?
oropharynx and laryngopharynx
What type of epithelium is the pharynx lined with?
What 3 things are sllowed to pass through the pharynx?
food, fluid, air
What is the layer of the pharynx that has two skeletal muscle layers present?
What is type of muscle the esophagus made of?
1/3 skeletal, 2/3 smooth
Where in the brain do we initiate swallowing?
motor cortex in frontal lobe
What type of epithelium is the esophagus lined with?
What do the glands in the pharynx do?
Where does the esophagus go through to become the stomach?
pierces diaphragm, hole is called "hiatus"
What are the 2 phases of deglutition?
What happens during the buccal phase of deglutition?
bolus forced into oropharynx
What controls the pharyngea-esophageal phase?
medulla and lower pons
What phase of deglutition closes of respiratory passages?
What is the surface epithelium layer of the intestinal wall?
What kind of special cells is the mucosa composed of?
What produces a coat of alkaline mucus for the mucosa layer?
What tissue is the mucosa?
simple columnar epithelium
What type of glands do gastric pits have?
What 3 things gastric glands secrete?
secrete gastric juices, mucus, and gastrin
What are 4 types of special cells in the stomach's mucosa?
mucous neck cells
Which special cell of the mucosa layer secretes acidic mucus?
mucous neck cells
What type of special cell in the stomach's mucosa releases HCl?
What does HCl activate?
What are parietal cells used for in the small intestine?
to absorb vitamin B12 for RBC production
What type of special cell in the stomach's mucosa produces pepsinogen?
What secretion by the enteroendocrine cells stimulates contraction of the stomach and more gastric secretions?
What are the 3 layers of the stomach's muscularis externa?
What 3 functions do the layers of the stomach's muscularis externa have?
What 2 chemical digestion acts occur in the stomach?
pepsin breaks down proteins
What 3 things are absorbed in the stomach?
water, alcohol, aspirin
What does the alkaline mucus secreted by goblet cells in the stomach do?
prevents digestive enzymes from digesting organs
What kind of mucous coat does the stomach have?
What junctions of epithelium is the stomach?
How often is stomach epithelium replaced?
What are erosions of the stomach wall known as?
What causes gastric ulcers?
What are Helicobacter pylori bacteria involved with?
cause of gastric ulcers
How are gastric ulcers treated?
antibiotics, acid reducers
What are the 3 phases of gastric secretion?
What gastric secretion phase stimulates gastric secretion by pathway that includes hypothalamus, medulla, and parasympathetic NS?
What 4 senses trigger gastric secretion?
thought of food
What phase of gastric secretion last up to 4 hours?
What 3 things is the gastric phase of gastric secretion stimulated by?
Which phase of gastric secretion involves neural AND hormonal stimuli?
Which phase of gastric secretion stimulates the stomach?
What part of the intestine is in charge of the intestinal phase of gastric secretion?
What type of reflex inhibits the stomach from entering chyme into intestine?
What 2 hormones are released from duodenum?
What hormone released from the duodenum stimulates enzyme-pancreatic juice and gallbladder contraction?
What 2 hormones from the duodenum inhibits the stomach?
What 2 things does secretin stimulate?
liver's bile production
What 2 things could happen to chyme?
from stomach to duodenum
into stomach for further mixing
Where do peristaltic waves move toward? How fast?
3 per minute
What are the 3 peristaltic waves in the stomach?
How many hours does it take for the stomach to empty?
Which moves quicker from stomach to duodenum, carbohydrate chyme or fat chyme?
What two sphincters begin and end the small intestine?
What is the longest section of the small intestine?
What are plicae circulares?
deep circular folds
mucosa and submucosa
What are the finger like extensions of the mucosa in the small intestine?
What type of epithelium are primarily in small intestine?
What 2 places do nutrients from small intestine absorb into?
blood and lymph
What is the largest gland in the body?
What shape of lobules is the liver made of?
What are the 4 hepatocyte (liver) functions?
nutrients to blood
What is the yellow green alkaline solution from the liver?
What are the bile pigments?
What are the 5 components of bile?
What do bile salts do?
aid fat+cholesterol absorption
What organ is bile stored in?
What cells are involved in the pancrease exocrine functions?
What cells are involved in the pacrease endocrine functions?
What do acini secrete?
What 3 things are in pancreatic juice
How does pancreatic juice neutralize acidic chyme?
pH = 8
What 2 forms do we find enzymes in pancreatic juice?
What is 1 inactive enzyme in pancreatic juice?
What are 3 active enzymes in pancreatic juice?
Where is the main site of chemical digestion?
Does fat digestion take place in the duodenum?
How long does digestion in the duodenum take?
up to 5 hrs
What 2 movements occur in the small intestine?
What are 2 unique features of the large intestine??
What are the three bands of longitudinal smooth muscle in the large intestine's muscularis?
What are the pocket like sacs caused by the tone of tenaie coli of the large intestine?
What are 2 functions of the large intestine?
propulsion of feces to anus
reclaimation of vitamins, water, electrolytes
What are the three big movements when the stomach is digesting called?
mass perastalsis forces
What intiates peristalsis?
presence of food in the stomach
What do bacteria do in the large intestine for digestion?
synthesize vitamins (K+B)