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  1. What is it called to take in food into the digestive tract?
  2. What is the movement of food through the digestive tract?
  3. What are 3 processes of mechanical digestion?
    chewing, churning, segementation
  4. What process of digestion occurs in the mouth?
  5. What process of digestion occurs ibn the stomach?
  6. Where does segementation occur?
    small intestine
  7. What are the 2 processes of propulsion?
    • swallowing
    • peristalsis
  8. What 4 organs does peristalsis occur?
    • esophagus
    • stomach
    • small intestine
    • large intestine
  9. Where does swallowing occur?
  10. What are the 6 processes of digestive system overall?
    • ingestion
    • mechanical digestion
    • propulsion
    • chemical digestion
    • absorption
    • defecation
  11. What is the catabolic breakdown of food?
    chemical digestion
  12. What do the 4 ingredients we ingest break down to during chemical digestion?
    • carbohydrates = simple sugars
    • proteins = amino acids
    • lipids = fatty acids
    • nucleic acids = nucleotides
  13. Where does chemical digestion begin?
    in the mouth
  14. What is the difference between perastalsis and segmentation?
    • peristalsis adjacent segements of GI tract moves food distally down
    • segmentation nonadjacent segments of GI tract move food forward and backward
  15. What is absorption?
    movement of nutrients from GI tract to blood or lymph
  16. What is the major absorption site?
    small intestine
  17. What is the elimination of indigestable solid wastes?
  18. Where does defecation occur?
  19. What are 2 waste scenarios that would provide defecation?
    • indigestable food (fiber)
    • food that didn't get a chance to be absorbed
  20. What are 2 things that control the GI tract?
    mechano receprots and chemoreceptors
  21. What meaqsures the stretchability of the GI tract?
  22. What measures the pH and osmolarity of the GI tract?
  23. What mix GI tract's lumen contents and move them along?
    mechanoreceptors and chemoreceptors
  24. What 2 factors control the regulation of digestion?
    intrinsic and extrinsic
  25. What is the gut brain?
    intrinsic nerves
  26. What kind of factors are the central nervous system and autonmic nervous system (symp/parasymp) that act on the GI tract?
    extrinsic factors
  27. Which has shorter reflexes, intrinsic or extrinsic factors?
  28. What 2 responses do the instrinsic and extrinsic factors have on the GI tract?
    change in contractions or change in secretions
  29. What are the 4 layers of tissue in the intestinal wall?
    • mucosa
    • submucosa
    • musculariz externa
    • serosa / adventitia
  30. What layer of the intestinal wall lines the lumen of the alimentary canal?
  31. What are 3 major functions of the mucosa?
    • secrete mucus
    • absorb
    • protect against infections
  32. What are the 3 layers of the mucosa?
    • epithelial
    • lamina propia
    • muscularis mucosae
  33. What is the connective tissue that anchors epithelium?
    lamina propia
  34. What does mucus protect the GI tract from?
    mucus protects from the enzymes within the GI tract from digesting the organs when theyre digesting food
  35. What are 2 functions of mucus in the GI tract?
    • protect from digestive enzymes harming organs
    • ease food along the tract
  36. What type of tissue is the epithelial lining of the mucosa?
    simple columnar epithelium
  37. What secrete mucus in the GI tract?
    goblet cells
  38. What 2 things do the stomach and small intestine mucosa layer secrete?
    enzymes and hormones
  39. What is the connective tissue that nourishes and absorbs nutrients of the epithelium?
    lamina propia
  40. What does lamina propia contain that protects the GI tract from nfection?
  41. What kind of cells is the muscularis mucosa of the intestinal wall made of?
    • smooth muscle
    • involuntary
  42. What is the difference between loose and dense connective tissue?
    loose connective tissue has less fibers than dense
  43. What type of tissue is the submucosa layer of the intestinal wall made of?
    dense connective tissue
  44. What 4 things does connective tissue contain?
    • glands
    • blood
    • lymphatic vessels
    • nerve plexus
  45. What 2 types opf smooth muscle make up the muscularis externa layer of the intestinal wall?
    • inner circular smooth muscle
    • outer longitudinal smooth muscle
  46. What layer of the intestinal wall is responsible for peristalsis?
    muscularis externa
  47. What happens if the muscularis externa layer of the intestinal wall thickens?
    may form sphincters
  48. What regulates how much food goes into each organ in order to prevent overfilling of that organs?
  49. What layer of the intestinal wall is the protective visceral peritoneum?
  50. What is the serosa replaces by in the esophagus?
    fibrous adventitia
  51. What layers of the intestinal wall do retroperational organs have?
    • mucosa
    • submucosa
    • muscularis externa
    • serosa AND adventitia
  52. What layer of the intestinal wall anchors and supports the organs of the digestive tract?
  53. What tissue is the oral cavity lines with?
    stratified squamous epithelium
  54. What are 2 other names for the mouth?
    • oral cavity
    • buccal cavity
  55. What are 5 muscles of the lips and cheeks (oral cavity)?
    • buccinator
    • masseater
    • zygomaticus
    • temporalis
    • orbicularis oris
  56. What 2 bones make up the hard palate?
    • palatine bone
    • palatine process of the maxilla
  57. What are 3 functions of the tongue?
    • grips/positions food
    • mixes food with saliva/ form bolus
    • initiates swallowing
  58. What are the 3 salivary glands?
    • sublingual
    • submandibular
    • parotoid
  59. What 4 functions does saliva have?
    • cleanse mouth
    • moisten food
    • form bolus
    • enzymes that break down starch
  60. What are the 4 functions of the mouth in the digestive system?
    • ingestion
    • mechanical digestion
    • chemical digestion
    • propulsion initiated
  61. What is one way mechanical digestion occurs in the mouth?
    mastication (chewing)
  62. What type of chemical digestion occurs in the mouth?
    salivary amylase breaks down starch
  63. What action in the mouth initiates propulsion?
    deglutition (swallowing)
  64. What are 4 types of teeth the mouth has?
    • incisors
    • canines
    • premolars / bicuspids
    • molars
  65. What are 2 parts of the pharynx?
    oropharynx and laryngopharynx
  66. What type of epithelium is the pharynx lined with?
    stratified squamous
  67. What 3 things are sllowed to pass through the pharynx?
    food, fluid, air
  68. What is the layer of the pharynx that has two skeletal muscle layers present?
    muscularis externa
  69. What is type of muscle the esophagus made of?
    1/3 skeletal, 2/3 smooth
  70. Where in the brain do we initiate swallowing?
    motor cortex in frontal lobe
  71. What type of epithelium is the esophagus lined with?
    stratified squamous
  72. What do the glands in the pharynx do?
    secrete mucous
  73. Where does the esophagus go through to become the stomach?
    pierces diaphragm, hole is called "hiatus"
  74. What are the 2 phases of deglutition?
    • buccal phase
    • pharyngeal-esophageal phase
  75. What happens during the buccal phase of deglutition?
    bolus forced into oropharynx
  76. What controls the pharyngea-esophageal phase?
    medulla and lower pons
  77. What phase of deglutition closes of respiratory passages?
    pharyngeal-esophageal phase
  78. What is the surface epithelium layer of the intestinal wall?
  79. What kind of special cells is the mucosa composed of?
    goblet cells
  80. What produces a coat of alkaline mucus for the mucosa layer?
    goblet cells
  81. What tissue is the mucosa?
    simple columnar epithelium
  82. What type of glands do gastric pits have?
    gastric glands
  83. What 3 things gastric glands secrete?
    secrete gastric juices, mucus, and gastrin
  84. What are 4 types of special cells in the stomach's mucosa?
    • mucous neck cells
    • parietal cells
    • chief cells
    • enteroendocrine cells
  85. Which special cell of the mucosa layer secretes acidic mucus?
    mucous neck cells
  86. What type of special cell in the stomach's mucosa releases HCl?
    parietal cells
  87. What does HCl activate?
  88. What are parietal cells used for in the small intestine?
    to absorb vitamin B12 for RBC production
  89. What type of special cell in the stomach's mucosa produces pepsinogen?
    chief cells
  90. What secretion by the enteroendocrine cells stimulates contraction of the stomach and more gastric secretions?
  91. What are the 3 layers of the stomach's muscularis externa?
    • longitudinal
    • circular
    • oblique
  92. What 3 functions do the layers of the stomach's muscularis externa have?
    • propulsion
    • mechanical digestion
    • chyme formation
  93. What 2 chemical digestion acts occur in the stomach?
    • pepsin breaks down proteins
    • chyme formed
  94. What 3 things are absorbed in the stomach?
    water, alcohol, aspirin
  95. What does the alkaline mucus secreted by goblet cells in the stomach do?
    prevents digestive enzymes from digesting organs
  96. What kind of mucous coat does the stomach have?
    bicarbonate rich
  97. What junctions of epithelium is the stomach?
    tight junctions
  98. How often is stomach epithelium replaced?
    3-6 days
  99. What are erosions of the stomach wall known as?
    gastric ulcers
  100. What causes gastric ulcers?
    high acidity
  101. What are Helicobacter pylori bacteria involved with?
    cause of gastric ulcers
  102. How are gastric ulcers treated?
    antibiotics, acid reducers
  103. What are the 3 phases of gastric secretion?
    • cephalic
    • gastric
    • intestinal
  104. What gastric secretion phase stimulates gastric secretion by pathway that includes hypothalamus, medulla, and parasympathetic NS?
    cephalic phase
  105. What 4 senses trigger gastric secretion?
    • see
    • taste
    • smell
    • thought of food
  106. What phase of gastric secretion last up to 4 hours?
    gastric phase
  107. What 3 things is the gastric phase of gastric secretion stimulated by?
    • distension
    • peptides
    • low acidity
  108. Which phase of gastric secretion involves neural AND hormonal stimuli?
    gastric phase
  109. Which phase of gastric secretion stimulates the stomach?
    gastric phase
  110. What part of the intestine is in charge of the intestinal phase of gastric secretion?
  111. What type of reflex inhibits the stomach from entering chyme into intestine?
    enterogastric reflexes
  112. What 2 hormones are released from duodenum?
    • CCK
    • Secretin
  113. What hormone released from the duodenum stimulates enzyme-pancreatic juice and gallbladder contraction?
  114. What 2 hormones from the duodenum inhibits the stomach?
    • CCK
    • secretin
  115. What 2 things does secretin stimulate?
    • bicarbonate-pancreatic juice
    • liver's bile production
  116. What 2 things could happen to chyme?
    • delivered from stomach to duodenum
    • forced back into stomach for further mixing
  117. Where do peristaltic waves move toward? How fast?
    • toward pylorus
    • 3 per minute
  118. What are the 3 peristaltic waves in the stomach?
    • propulsion
    • grinding
    • retropulsion
  119. How many hours does it take for the stomach to empty?
  120. Which moves quicker from stomach to duodenum, carbohydrate chyme or fat chyme?
    carbohydrate chyme
  121. What two sphincters begin and end the small intestine?
    • pyloric sphincter
    • ileocecal valve
  122. What is the longest section of the small intestine?
  123. What are plicae circulares?
    • deep circular folds
    • small intestine
    • mucosa and submucosa
  124. What are the finger like extensions of the mucosa in the small intestine?
  125. What type of epithelium are primarily in small intestine?
    absorptive columnar
  126. What 2 places do nutrients from small intestine absorb into?
    blood and lymph
  127. What is the largest gland in the body?
  128. What shape of lobules is the liver made of?
  129. What are the 4 hepatocyte (liver) functions?
    • produce bile
    • process nutrients to blood
    • store fat vitamins
    • detox
  130. What is the yellow green alkaline solution from the liver?
  131. What are the bile pigments?
  132. What are the 5 components of bile?
    • bilirubin
    • cholesterol
    • triglycerides
    • ions
    • bile salts
  133. What do bile salts do?
    • emulsify fat
    • aid fat+cholesterol absorption
  134. What organ is bile stored in?
  135. What cells are involved in the pancrease exocrine functions?
  136. What cells are involved in the pacrease endocrine functions?
    beta cells
  137. What do acini secrete?
    pancreatic juice
  138. What 3 things are in pancreatic juice
    • water
    • electrolytes
    • enzymes
  139. How does pancreatic juice neutralize acidic chyme?
    pH = 8
  140. What 2 forms do we find enzymes in pancreatic juice?
    • active
    • inactive
  141. What is 1 inactive enzyme in pancreatic juice?
  142. What are 3 active enzymes in pancreatic juice?
    • amylase -pancreatic
    • lipase
    • nuclease
  143. Where is the main site of chemical digestion?
    • small intestine
    • duodenum
  144. Does fat digestion take place in the duodenum?
  145. How long does digestion in the duodenum take?
    up to 5 hrs
  146. What 2 movements occur in the small intestine?
    • segmentation
    • peristalsis
  147. What are 2 unique features of the large intestine??
    • teniae coli
    • haustra
  148. What are the three bands of longitudinal smooth muscle in the large intestine's muscularis?
    tenaie coli
  149. What are the pocket like sacs caused by the tone of tenaie coli of the large intestine?
  150. What are 2 functions of the large intestine?
    • propulsion of feces to anus
    • reclaimation of vitamins, water, electrolytes
  151. What are the three big movements when the stomach is digesting called?
    mass perastalsis forces
  152. What intiates peristalsis?
    presence of food in the stomach
  153. What do bacteria do in the large intestine for digestion?
    • chemical digestion
    • ferment indigestables
    • synthesize vitamins (K+B)
Card Set:
2012-04-09 11:37:47

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