Clinical Pathology Chapter 6

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Clinical Pathology Chapter 6
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2012-04-02 19:35:24
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Clinical Pathology Chapter 6
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  1. Where is the site of blood cell production
    • Bone Marrow
    • Marrow is present in the medullary cavities of bones
  2. What is extramedullary hematopoesis
    In extreme cases areas such as the liver and spleen can produce blood cells
  3. Where are erythrocytes, granulocytes, monocytes and platelets and some lymphocytes formed
    in the Bone Marrow
  4. Where are most lymphocytes made
    In the lymph nodes
  5. Red Marrow
    In young animals marrow in all bones is active and highly cellular
  6. Yellow marrow
    as animals age, the amount of active marrow in the long bones decreases and is replaced with fat. Marrow remains active in flat bones (ribs, sternum, pelvis, and skull)
  7. Youngest to adult cell development

    Rubriblasts
    Rubriblast- prorubicyte-rubricyte- metarubicyte (nucleated Reb Blood Cell)-retiulocyte-RBC (erthrocyte)
  8. Youngest to adult cell development
    Myeloblast
    Myeloblast- promyelocyte- myelocyte-metamyelocyte-granulocyte (neutrophil, basophil, eosinophil)
  9. Youngest to adult cell development
    Monoblast
    monoblast- monocyte
  10. Youngest to adult cell development
    Lymphoblast (T or B)
    • Lymphoblast (T or B) - Lymphocyte (T or B)
    • B cells are produced in the Bone marrow.
  11. The precursors of T cells are also produced in the bone marrow but leave the bone marrow and mature in the thymus
  12. Youngest to adult cell development
    Megakaryoblast
    Megakaryoblast- megakaryocyte-multiple platelets
  13. Reasons to examine bone marrow
    • Non-regenerative anemia of undetermined cause
    • Abnormal cells are found on the blood smear
    • Culture in cases of osteomyelitis
  14. Define Osteomyelitis
    Inflammation of the bone
  15. Where are the collection sites for bone marrow
    • Proximal Humerus
    • Proximal femur
    • Wing of the ilium
  16. What are the bone marrow collection needles called
    • Rosenthal bone marrow aspiration needle
    • jamshidi needle is used to get bone marrow core for biopsy
  17. What is the first step in bone marrow inspection
    Preform a naked eye inspection of the slides to select the smear containing the best particles (marrow fragments)
  18. What is the second step in bone marrow inspection
    • Slide Cellularity: With 10x objective survey the particles whether they are normocellular, hypocellular or hypercellular. In many cases one may just obtain blood (blood tap) or nothing at all (dry tap) When
    • not enough bone marrow fluid is collected in a bone marrow aspiration.
    • Under these conditions the aspirate has to be repeated, or a bone marrow biopsy has to be performed.
  19. Define Normocellular
    Hypocellular
    • Normocellular- normal amounts and types of cells
    • Hypocellular- containing less than the normal number of cells
    • Hypercellular- containing more than the normal number of cells
  20. What is the third step in bone marrow inspection
    • Myeloid to Erythroid ratio
    • Use the 10x or 40x objective. The number of large, pale staining cells with dispersed chromatin (myeloid cell)
    • should be compared to the number of dark staining cells with clumped chromatin (ie. erythroid cells). This is a quick, but reliable method of determining the M:E ratio.. Normal ratios very from 1:1 to 3:1
  21. What is a myloid cell
    suggests an origin in the bone marrow or spinal cord, or a resemblance to the marrow or spinal cord
  22. What is erthroid cells
    Cell that will give rise to erythrocytes
  23. What is the fourth and final step in Bone Marrow Inspection
    Maturation of erythroid and myeloid series: In normal bone marrow 80% of the nucleated series should be rubricytes and metarubricytes. In the myeloid series, 80% of cells should be metamyelocytes, bands, and segmented Neutrophils. Blast cells should be less than 5% of the neutrophils. Blast cells should be less than 5 % of the total. If the greater than 30% of cells are blasts cells, a hemic neoplasia (ie. leukemia) is probably present.
  24. Bone Marrow Disfunction can be caused by several things one of which is
    What are infectious agents
    • Erthlichiosis- Tick born
    • FeLV -Feline Leukemia Virus
    • FIP Virus- Feline infectious peritonitis
  25. Bone Marrow Disfunction can be caused by several things one of which is
    Chemicals and Toxins
    Chemotherapy and radiation
  26. Bone Marrow Disfunction can be caused by several things one of which is
    Immune Mediated disease
    • ITP- Immune Mediated Thrombocytopenia
    • IMHA- IMMUNE MEDIATED HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA or “IMHA” (FORMERLY KNOWN AS AUTOIMMUNE HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA or “AIHA”
  27. Bone Marrow Disfunction can be caused by several things one of which is
    Myelophistic Disease
    • The componants of marrow are being "crowded out by abnormal cells. Most often due to neoplasia of one or more of the cells in the normally exist in the marrow.
    • Myeloproliferative disease (cancer)
  28. Define Hemostasis
    Hemostasis is the process the body uses to stop the flow of blood when the vascular system is damaged.
  29. There are 3 mechanisms tht help prevent excessive blood loss after vessel rupture.
    What are they
    • Vascular Spasms
    • Platelet Formation
    • Clot formation or coagulation
  30. What are platelets
    Platelets (thrombocyte) are formed in the bone marrow and are cell fragments derived from megakaryocytes.
  31. Function of platelets
    • to Form the initial plug at the site of hemorrage
    • Release numerous active chemicals which initiate the clotting process

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