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  1. what is an Acid
    any substance whose aqueous solutions are characterized by a sour taste, the ability to turn blue litmus red, and the ability to react with bases and certain metals to form salts. pH less than 7 in its standard state
  2. caustic or base
    Capable of buring, corroding, dissolving, or eating away by chemical action. pH greater that 7 in its standard form.
  3. Air reactivity
    materials that can react or ignite if they are exposed to air.
  4. auto-refrigeration
    a phenomenon that occurs during the rapid release (boiling) of a liquefied gas that causes it to temporarily remain in a liquid state through rapid cooling.
  5. biological agents
    bacteria, viruses, fungi, other microorganisms and their associated toxins. many microbes reproduce rapidly and require minimal resources for survival; therefore, they are a potential danger in a wide variery of occupational settings
  6. biological toxins
    can be small molecules, peptides, or protiens that are capable of causing disease on contact with or absorbtion by body tissue
  7. blood agents
    a chemical compound, including the cyanide group that affects bodily functions by preventing the normal utilization of oxygen by body tissues. the term is a misnomer, however, because these agentsdo not actually affect the blood in any way.
  8. boiling point
    temperature at which the transition from a liquid to a fas state occures. at this temperature, the vapor pressure of a liquid equals the surrounding atmospheric pressure so that the liquid rapidly becomes a vapor.
  9. catalyst
    a substance that initiates or accelerates a chemical reaction without itself being affected.
  10. chemical change
    changes that take place on the molecular level. produces a new substance
  11. chemical interactions
    caused when two or more chemicals, or the chemical and its container are incompatible.
  12. compound, mixture
    separate elements that bond together to form compound mixture, they have a tendency to break down into their component parts, sometimes in an explosive manner
  13. concentration- when dealing with corrosives
    the amount of acid or base is compared to the amount of water present
  14. critical temperature
    the minimum temperature at which a gas can be liquefied no matter how much pressure is applied. a gas cannot be liquefied above it critical temperature.
  15. critical pressure
    the pressure that must be applied to bring a gas to its liquid state
  16. dissociation
    the separation of a substance into two or more simpler substances, or of a molecule into atoms or ions, by the action of heat or a chemical process. dissociation is usually reversible
  17. corrosivity
    a measure of a substance's tendency to deteriorate in the presence of another substance or in a particular environment
  18. dose
    the concentration or amount of material to which the body is exposed over a specific time period.
  19. dose response
    the biological reaction caused by the dose in the body. the degree of harm is directly related to the dose (time and amount) and its impact on bodily function.
  20. expansion ratio
    the amount of gas produced by a given volume of liquid at a given temperature
  21. flash point
    the minimum temperature at which a material gives off vapor in sufficient concentration to form an ignitable mixture of air and will not continue to burn.
  22. fire point
    the temperature at which enough vapors are given off to support continuous burning
  23. flammable (explosive) range
    the difference between the upper and lower flammable limits
  24. lower explosive limit (LEL)
    the minimum concentration of vapor to air below which a flame will not propagate in the presence of an ignition source. to lean to burn
  25. upper explosive limit (UEL)
    the maximum vapor to air concentration above, which a flame will not propagate. to rich to burn
  26. half life
    the period of time it takes for a substance undergoing decay to decrease by half.
  27. halongenated hydrocarbons
    they are a subgroup of aromatic hydrocarbons, in which one of the hydrogen molecules is substituted by a halogen group
  28. inhibitor
    added to products to control their chemical reaction with other products. if it is not added or escapes during an incident, the material will begin to polymerize, which creates a very dangerous situation.
  29. ignition (auto-ignition) temperature
    the temperature at which a material (solid, liquid, or gas) will self-ignite and sustain combustionin air without an external spark or flame.
  30. instability
    materials that decompse spontaneously, polymerize, or otherwise self-react and are generally considered unstable
  31. ionic and covalent compounds
    materials made through the sharing or transfer of electrons.
  32. irritants (riot control agents)
    they cause respiratory distress and copious tearing that incapacite a victim
  33. maximum safe storage temperature (MSST)
    the maximum temperature that an organic peroxide may be stored safely
  34. melting point
    the temperature at which a solid becomes a liquid allowing it to spread more readily
  35. freezing point
    the temperature at which a liquid converts to a solid
  36. miscibility
    refers to the tendency or ability of two or more liquids to form a uniform blend, or to dissolve in each other.
  37. nerve agents
    substances that interfere with the central nervous system
  38. organic
    pertaining to a class of chemical compounds that formerly comprised only those existing in or derived from plants or animals, but that now includes all other compounds of carbon.
  39. inorganic
    composed of matter that is not animal or vegetable, not having the organized structure of living things. inorganic material lacks carbon chains.
  40. oxidation potential
    the combining of anything with oxygen or the propensity to yield oxygen which will present a greater hazard.
  41. persistence
    refers to a chemical's ability to remain in the environment. the more persistnet, the greater the propensity for it to remain harmful over a period of time.
  42. pH
    the numerical measure of a solution's hydrogen ion concentration as related to acidity or alkalinity.
  43. physical change
    the process when objects undergo a change that does not change their chemical properties.
  44. physical state (solid, liquid, or gas)
    the characteristic form of a material at ambient temperature.
  45. polymerization
    any process in which relatively small molecules, called monomers, combine chemically to produce a very large chainlike or network molecule, called a polymer.
  46. radioactivity
    spontaneous emission of ionizing radiation as a consequence of a nuclear reaction or directly from the breakdown of an unstable nucleus.
  47. Alpha
    positively charged particle emitted by some radioactive materials and is not considered dangerous unless ingested
  48. Beta partivle
    a small particle ejected from a radioactive atom with more penetrationg power than alpha, can cause the same internal damage as alpha particles. will penetrate only a fraction of an inch of skin tissue and can ravel distance of 7ft. firefighter PPE including SCBA can gurad against beta particles.
  49. gamma rays or radiation
    electromagnetic radiation of high energy. gamma rays are the most penetrating type of radiatin and represent a major external hazard and can penetrate human tissue. they originate from the nucleus of an atom, move at the speed of light and are the most dangerous form of radiation. time, distance, and shielding (lead, cement, and water) can protect from it.
  50. reactivity
    a substance's propensity to release energy or undergo change, for example, self-reaction, polymerization, or violent reaction.
  51. water reactivity
    describes the sensitivity of a material to water without the addition of heat or confinement.
  52. riot control agents
    chemical compounds that temporarily make people unable to function by causing irritation to the eyes, mouth, throat, lungs, and skin. some times referred to as "tear gas"
  53. saturated hydrocarbons
    haydrocarbons that contain only single bonds. they are also called alkanes or paraffin hydrocarbons. (methane, butane)
  54. unsaturated hydrocarbons
    materials that have at least one multiple bond between two carbon atoms somewhere in the molecule, which causes them to be more hazardous
  55. aromatic hydrocarbons
    materials that contain the benzene ring, which is formed by six carbon atoms and contains double bonds. its greatest hazard is toxicity
  56. self-accelerating decomposition temperature
    • when this temperature is reached by some portion of the mass of the organic peroxide, irreversible decomposition will begin.
    • this reaction can be violent, usually rupturing the vessel or container dispersing peroxide, liquid and gaseous decomposition products considerable distances
  57. solubility
    • the ability of a substance to form a solution with water can be important when determining control methods
    • gasoline is insoluble, while anhydrous ammonia is soluble.
  58. solution
    mixture in which all of the ingredients are completely dissolved.
  59. slurry
    pourable mixture of a solid and a liquid
  60. specific gravity (SG)
    the weight of a solid or liquid compared to an equal volume of water.
  61. strength
    • the concentration of a solution.
    • in corrosives, strength refers to the degree of ionization of an acid or a base in water.
  62. sublimation
    the ability of a substance to change from the solid to the vapor phase without passing through the liquid phase.
  63. temperature of product
    influences the hazards present and the measures taken to control an incident that involves that product.
  64. toxic products of combustion
    byproducts of the combustion process that are harmful to humans. some materials generate more highly toxic gases then other do; therefore, appropriate levels of protective clothing and equipment must be used to counter them.
  65. vapor density
    weight of a vapor compared to air.
  66. vapor pressure
    the force exerted by the gas or vapor released by a liquid or solid substance in a closed container or space.
  67. vesicants (blister agents)
    these agents are extremely toxic, with the symptoms of exposure not appering for minutes, hours, or days.
  68. viscosity
    measure of the thickness of a liquid, determines how easily it flows. during an incident this will affect the flow away from a leaking container, expanding the endangered area.
  69. volatility
    ease with which a liquid or solid can pass into the vapor state. during an incident this will affect the dispersion in air and expand the endangered area
  70. counts per min (cpm) and kilocounts per min (kcpm)
    are measurements of radioactivity. it is the number of atoms in a given quantity of radioactive material that are detected to have decayed in one minute.
  71. immediately dangerous to life and health (IDLH) value
    the maximum level to which a healthy worker can be exposed for 30 minutes and escape without suffering irreversible health effects or impairment.
  72. incubation period
    the latency between exposure to a pathogen and onset of symptoms
Card Set
tech 1 vocab
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