More Spirurids

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More Spirurids
2012-04-01 17:49:57
Lab Tech

Lab Tech
Show Answers:

  1. Do spirurids have intermediate hosts?
  2. What is the intermediate for spirurids?
  3. What is the life cycle for spirurids?
    • IH ingests L1 from DH
    • develops to L3 within the IH
    • L3 is transmitted to DH
  4. What is Onchocerca cervicalis?
    • nuchal ligament worm
    • neck threadworm
  5. How big do adult Onchocerca cervicalis get?
    30 cm long
  6. Who is the definitive host of Onchocerca cervicalis?
  7. Who is the intermediate host for Onchocerca cervicalis?
  8. What are midges?
    biting bugs that you can't see
  9. What is the life cycle of Onchocerca cervicalis?
    • microfilarae (L1) are ingested by midges as they feed
    • development to L3 takes 20 - 25 deays in midge
    • infection with L3 occurs during feeding by the midge
  10. What is the infection site for Onchocerca cervicalis?
    • Adults: nuchal ligament (holds head up)
    • Microfilariae: conjunctiva, lens, dermis, and other connective tissues
  11. How do you diagnose Onchocerca cervicalis?
    • skin biopsy
    • clinical signs
  12. What is Habronema?
    stomach worm of horses
  13. What is the definitive host for Habronema?
  14. What is the intermediate host for Habronema?
    houseflies and stable flies
  15. What is the infection site for Habronema?
    • Adults: stomach mucosa
    • Larvae: skin (cutaneous granulomas, nictitating membrane)
  16. What is the life cycle of Habronema?
    • larvae or eggs are passed in feces and ingested by maggots of house or stable flies
    • L1 develop to L3 in one week within maggot, as maggots turn into flies.
    • L3 move out of the fly via the proboscis as the fly feeds on to the horse's lips, nostrils, or wounds
    • Larvae mature in the stomach
    • L3 must be ingested and reach the stomach to mature; otherwise, only cutaneous infection occurs
  17. What is the pathogenesis of Habronema?
    • gastritis
    • cutaneous habronemiasis (summer sores, swamp cancer) - larvae cause large, granulomoas that are extremely prurtic
  18. How are Habronema diagnosed?
    • eggs or L1 rarely found in fecal exam
    • Cutaneous infection (history, appearance, biopsy)
  19. What is Draschia?
    • similar to Habronema
    • Ivermectin
  20. What is Thelazia species?
    eyeworms (dogs, cats, horses, human)
  21. What is Thelazia lacrymalis?
    • eyeworms of horses
    • transmitted by face fly
    • larva migrates to the eye (3 months until adult)
  22. What is the pathology of Thelazia?
    • infections are asymptomatic
    • often see opacity, hyphema, parasite
  23. What is Spriocerca lupi?
    esophageal worm of dogs
  24. What is the intermediate host of Spriocerca lupi?
    dung beetles
  25. What are paratenic host of Spirocerca lupi?
    chickens, reptiles, rodents
  26. What is the life cycle of Spirocerca lupi?
    • eggs in feces
    • ingested by beetle
    • develops to L3
    • dog ingesets beetle or paratenic host
    • migrates thru stomach wall then to the aorta then to the esophagus
    • adults lay eggs and are passed in feces
  27. What is the pathogenesis for Spirocerca lupi?
    • most dogs have no clinical signs
    • larvae may migrate into wall of aorta then cause aneurysm
    • adults in wall of esophagus then cause sarcoma
  28. What is hypertrophic osteopathy?
    • diffuse periosteal proliferative condition of long bones in dogs
    • secondary to neoplastic or infectious masses in the thoracic or abdominal cavity
  29. What are the clincial signs of hypertrophic osteopathy?
    lameness, long bone pain, and signs of secondary to body cavity mass
  30. How is hypertrophic osteopathy diagnosed?
  31. How is Spirocerca lupi diagnosed?
    • small eggs
    • rads
    • barium
    • endoscopy
  32. How are Spirocerca lupi treated?
  33. What is physaloptera?
    stomach worm of dogs and cats
  34. What is the intermediate host of Physaloptera?
    beetle or roach
  35. What are the clinical signs of physaloptera?
    • gastritis
    • gastric bleeding
  36. How do you diagnose physaloptera?
    • embryonated ova
    • heavy egg on float (zinc oxide)
    • centrifugal sedimentation