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Do spirurids have intermediate hosts?
What is the intermediate for spirurids?
What is the life cycle for spirurids?
- IH ingests L1 from DH
- develops to L3 within the IH
- L3 is transmitted to DH
What is Onchocerca cervicalis?
- nuchal ligament worm
- neck threadworm
How big do adult Onchocerca cervicalis get?
30 cm long
Who is the definitive host of Onchocerca cervicalis?
Who is the intermediate host for Onchocerca cervicalis?
What are midges?
biting bugs that you can't see
What is the life cycle of Onchocerca cervicalis?
- microfilarae (L1) are ingested by midges as they feed
- development to L3 takes 20 - 25 deays in midge
- infection with L3 occurs during feeding by the midge
What is the infection site for Onchocerca cervicalis?
- Adults: nuchal ligament (holds head up)
- Microfilariae: conjunctiva, lens, dermis, and other connective tissues
How do you diagnose Onchocerca cervicalis?
- skin biopsy
- clinical signs
What is Habronema?
stomach worm of horses
What is the definitive host for Habronema?
What is the intermediate host for Habronema?
houseflies and stable flies
What is the infection site for Habronema?
- Adults: stomach mucosa
- Larvae: skin (cutaneous granulomas, nictitating membrane)
What is the life cycle of Habronema?
- larvae or eggs are passed in feces and ingested by maggots of house or stable flies
- L1 develop to L3 in one week within maggot, as maggots turn into flies.
- L3 move out of the fly via the proboscis as the fly feeds on to the horse's lips, nostrils, or wounds
- Larvae mature in the stomach
- L3 must be ingested and reach the stomach to mature; otherwise, only cutaneous infection occurs
What is the pathogenesis of Habronema?
- cutaneous habronemiasis (summer sores, swamp cancer) - larvae cause large, granulomoas that are extremely prurtic
How are Habronema diagnosed?
- eggs or L1 rarely found in fecal exam
- Cutaneous infection (history, appearance, biopsy)
What is Draschia?
- similar to Habronema
What is Thelazia species?
eyeworms (dogs, cats, horses, human)
What is Thelazia lacrymalis?
- eyeworms of horses
- transmitted by face fly
- larva migrates to the eye (3 months until adult)
What is the pathology of Thelazia?
- infections are asymptomatic
- often see opacity, hyphema, parasite
What is Spriocerca lupi?
esophageal worm of dogs
What is the intermediate host of Spriocerca lupi?
What are paratenic host of Spirocerca lupi?
chickens, reptiles, rodents
What is the life cycle of Spirocerca lupi?
- eggs in feces
- ingested by beetle
- develops to L3
- dog ingesets beetle or paratenic host
- migrates thru stomach wall then to the aorta then to the esophagus
- adults lay eggs and are passed in feces
What is the pathogenesis for Spirocerca lupi?
- most dogs have no clinical signs
- larvae may migrate into wall of aorta then cause aneurysm
- adults in wall of esophagus then cause sarcoma
What is hypertrophic osteopathy?
- diffuse periosteal proliferative condition of long bones in dogs
- secondary to neoplastic or infectious masses in the thoracic or abdominal cavity
What are the clincial signs of hypertrophic osteopathy?
lameness, long bone pain, and signs of secondary to body cavity mass
How is hypertrophic osteopathy diagnosed?
How is Spirocerca lupi diagnosed?
- small eggs
How are Spirocerca lupi treated?
What is physaloptera?
stomach worm of dogs and cats
What is the intermediate host of Physaloptera?
beetle or roach
What are the clinical signs of physaloptera?
- gastric bleeding
How do you diagnose physaloptera?
- embryonated ova
- heavy egg on float (zinc oxide)
- centrifugal sedimentation