Biology: mitosis

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Author:
lorxx152
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14512
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Biology: mitosis
Updated:
2010-04-14 19:38:14
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biology
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learning mitosis
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  1. what is somatic cell?
    body cell

  2. which phase is this? and what happen in this phase?
    • Interphase
    • After chromosome replication, each chromosome is composed of two sister chromatids.
    • Centrosomes have replicated.

  3. which phase is this? and what happen in this phase?
    • Prophase
    • Chromosomes condense, and mitotic spindle begins to form.

  4. which phase is this? and what happen in this phase?
    • Prometaphase
    • Nuclear envelope breaks down. Spindle fibers contact chromosomes at kinetochore

  5. which phase is this? and what happen in this phase?
    • Metaphase
    • Chromosomes complete migration to middle of cell

  6. which phase is this? and what happen in this phase?
    • Anaphase
    • Sister chromatds separate
    • Chromosomes are pulled to opposite poles of the cell.

  7. which phase is this? and what happen in this phase?
    • Telophase
    • The nuclear envelope re-forms.
    • The spindle apparatus disintegrates.

  8. what happen in these two step?
    • Cytokinesis
    • (left) Cell division begins: Actin-Myosin ring causes the plasma membrane to begin pinching in.
    • (right)cell division is complete: Two daughter cells form.
  9. what is cytokinesis?
    • Division of the cytoplasm to form two daughter cells.
    • Typically occurs immediately after division of the nucleus by mitosis or meiosis.
  10. what is asexual reproduction?
    Any form of reproduction resulting in offspring that are genetically identical to the parent.
  11. what is mitotic (M) phase?
    • The phase of the cell cycle during which cell division occurs.
    • Includes mitosis and cytokinesis
  12. what is synthesis (S) phase?
    The phase of the cell cycle during which DNA is synthesized and chromosomes are replicated.
  13. what is G1 phase?
    The phase of the cell cycle that constitutes the first part of interphase before DNA synthesis (S phase).
  14. what is G2 phase?
    The phase of the cell cycle between synthesis of DNA (S phase) and mitosis (M phase); the last part of interphase
  15. what is chromatin?
    The complex of DNA and proteins
  16. what is chromatid?
    One of the two identical strands composing a replicate chromosome that is connected at the centromere to the other strand.
  17. what is centromere?
    Constricted region of a replicated chromosome where the two sister chromatids are joined and the kinetochore is located.
  18. what is sister chromatids?
    The paired strands of a recently replicated chromosome, which are connected at the centromere
  19. what is a cell-cycle checkpoint?
    Any of several points in the cell cycle at which progression of a cell through the cycle can be regulated.
  20. what does G1 checkpoint ruglate?
    • Pass this checkpoint if:
    • nutrients are sufficient
    • growth factors (signals from other cells) are present
    • cell size is adequate
    • DNA is undamaged
  21. what does G2 checkpoint regulate?
    • Pass this checkpoint if:
    • chromosome replication is successfully completed
    • no DNA damaged
    • activated MPF present
  22. what does metaphase checkpoint regulate?
    • Pass this checkpoint if:
    • all chromosomes are attached to mitotic spindle

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