Biology Chapter 18 Test Study guide

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  1. What is a manmade system of assigning names and
    categories to different organisms?
  2. What are the eight groups Linneaus used to classify an organism from general to specific?
    • Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus and
    • species
  3. On the group scale going from left to right gets
  4. Going right to left gets more...?
  5. What are Convergent Evolutions?
    • When unrelated species develop similar traits that don't
    • share common ancestry
  6. What are 3 things used as lines of evolutionary descent
    to draw boundries?
    Segmentation, exoskeleton, and swimming larvae
  7. What is cladistic analysis?
    • A type of evolutionary classification that uses
    • evolutionary improvements to draw boundries and design family trees
  8. What are derived characteristics?
    Traits that show up recently but weren't in the past
  9. Why do we use derived characteristics?
    • To construct a cladogram
    • Shows evolutionary advances
    • over time
    • Show how one lineage branched from another
  10. What is molecular clock?
    • Using DNA comparisons to determine how long organisms
    • have been evolving independently (looks for common and unique mutations)
  11. Mutations accumulate in the DNA at a ______________.
    Fairly constant rate
  12. Why do mutations rarely effect the phenotype?
    • Because
    • most DNA is noncoding
  13. What are the 3 domains and 6 kingdoms?
    Eubacteria, Archaea, Eukarya

    • Eubacteria, Archaebacteria, Protista, Fungi, Plantae,
    • Animalia
  14. What are two characteristics of Eubacteria?
    • Unicellular prokaryotes that have thick, rigid cell walls
    • surrounding a cell membrane
  15. What do Eubacteria's cell wall contain?
    The chemical compound peptidoglycan
  16. Eubacteria are ecologically diverse or ___________.
    Free living to parasites
  17. How do Eubacteria get their food?
    Anaerobic, aerobic or through photosynthesis
  18. What are Archaea?
    Unicellular prokaryotes
  19. Where do Archaea live?
    Hot springs, thermal vents, and brine pools (very salty)
  20. What are the characteristics of cell walls and membranes
    in Archea?
    • Cells walls hav no peptidoglycan and cell membranes have
    • unusual chemicals in them
  21. What are eukarya?
    Eukaryotes that have a nucleus
  22. What are the four kingdoms in Eukarya?
    Protista, Fungi, Plants, and Animalia
  23. What are Protista?
    • Eukaryotic organisms that don't fit into other kingdoms
    • and have high levels of diversity
  24. What can Protista be?
    Single celled, multicellular, photosynthetic or heterotrophic
  25. What are fungi?
    Heterotrophs that feed on dead or decaying matter
  26. What do fungi do and what can they be?
    • Digest then ingest smaller macromolecules
    • Mushrooms, molds, yeast
  27. What are plants?
    Multicellular organisms that are photosynthetic autotrophs
  28. How do plants' specialized tissues reproduce?
    By fusion of gametes
  29. What are animals?
    Multicellular heterotrophs
  30. What do animals' cells not have?
    A cell wall
  31. What is a manmade system of assigning names and
    categories to different organisms?
  32. What are the three reasons for classifying?
    1) it helps to study organisms

    2) shows ancestral relationships between organisms

    3) organized into groups that have biological meaning
  33. What is taxonomy?
    The science of classifying organisms
  34. How many species have we identified and named?
    1.5 million species
  35. What is our estimate on the remaining species that we
    have not yet discovered?
    5-10 million
  36. Why are the early naming efforts hard to standardize?
    • Different people see different characteristics as
    • important
  37. Who was Carolus Linnaeus?
    A Swedish botanist, physicia, and zoologist
  38. What system did he develop?
    • The system of naming orgaisms known as binomial
    • nomenclature.
  39. What two parts does the binomial nomenclature use?
    Genus & Species
  40. What is capitalized, what is lower case?
    Genus capitalized & species lower cased
  41. The ___________ ______________ naming system is used _________ ___________ today.
    Binomial Nomenclature, World Wide
  42. The Genus and Species used in Binomial Nomenclature are what?
    Latin Word Roots
  43. Why do we use a scientific name?
    • To avoid confusion and be sure you are talking about the same organism
    • Common names can mean multiple different organisms
    • One organism may have multiple common names but will only have one scientific name
  44. Give an example of common names for one organism and the one scientific name for that same organism.
    Puma, cougar, mountain lion, panther, and Felis Concolor
  45. Other then Binomial Nomenclature, what did Linnaeus develop?
    A way to classify organisms and organize them into groups based on relatedness
  46. What was the difference between Linnaeus' way to classify organims in groups and the modern system?
    Linneaus' system only included seven groups whereas the modern day system contains one larger group; Domain
  47. What is evolutionary classification?
    A type of classification that uses lines of evolutionary descent to draw boundries (using common ancestry to make family trees)
  48. Again...what are Derived Characteristics?
    Trais that appear in recent parts of the lineage but not in older members
  49. What is a cladogram?
    A family tree
  50. Why are DNA strands compared?
    To determine relatedness and change in genetic code over time
  51. Whats are the two differences between Eubacteria and Archaea?
    Eubacteria's cell walls contain chemical compound peptidoglycan and Archaea live in extreme environments
  52. How do we show how long 2 species have been evolving independently?
    By looking at DNA and using dissimilarities
  53. Why do scientist keep changing the classification system?
    Because they keep getting new information from research
  54. In Linnaeus' how many and what kingdoms were known?
    Two: Plants and Animals
  55. Are fungi unicellular or mulitcellular?
    They can be both
  56. What are plant cell walls made up of?
  57. What kind of specialized tissues do animals and plants contain? Give three examples.
  58. What kind of tissue do animals have that plants don't? Give examples.
    Muscular (Heart, Bone, Muscles)
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Biology Chapter 18 Test Study guide
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