Respitory system

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Respitory system
2012-04-02 22:34:53
Chapter 19

Lecture exam 2
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  1. What is the other name for conchae?
  2. What are the 4 upper respitory organs?
    • nose
    • nasal cavity
    • sinuses
    • pharynx
  3. What two things make up the nostrils and what tissue is it composed of?
    • External nares,vestibule
    • stratified squamous epithelium
  4. What are the 4 lower respitory tract organs?
    • larynx
    • trachea
    • bronchial tree
    • lungs
  5. What two things is the nasal septum made of?
    • bone
    • cartilage
  6. What are the two functions of the mucosal lining in the nasal cavity?
    Filtering and moistening
  7. What is a nasal infection that invades the sinuses called?
  8. The separation of the nasal cavity is called?
    Nasal septum
  9. What are the 3 bony ridges of the concha called?
    • Superior
    • inferior
    • middle
  10. What sinuses do the superior and inferior concha open up to ?
    paranasal sinuse
  11. What duct does the middle conche open up to ?
    Nasolacrimal duct
  12. What is a meatus?
    Opening or a passageway
  13. What epithelium lines the vocal cords?
    Strafied squamous epithelium
  14. inflammation of the vocal cords are called?
  15. Going down into the oral cavity is called the _____ view?
    endoscopic view
  16. Why are false vocal cords called that and what is their function?
    • because they do not produce sound
    • their funtion is to prevent air to escape from lungs.
  17. What are the 3 cartilages of the larynx?
    • Arytenoid
    • cuneform
    • corniculate
  18. _____ secreations drain from the sinuses into the _____ cavity.
    • Mucous
    • nasal
  19. What are the 4 sinuses or paranasal spaces called?
    • Ethmoidal
    • frontal
    • sphenoidal
    • maxillary
  20. Sinuses are air-filled spaces lined with a _____ membrane.
  21. Its function is for the nostrils to provide entrance to nasal cavity , and the internal hairs filter incoming air.
  22. What is the enlargement at the top of the trachea ?
  23. Flexible tube that connects larynx with bronchial tree.
  24. Does putting more pressure in the lungs increase or decrease its volume?
  25. What two skeletal muscles are involved in breathing?
    • Intercostals
    • diaphragm
  26. What nerves innervate the intercostals?
    intercostal nerves
  27. What nerve goes to the diaphragm?
    phrenic nerve
  28. At rest the diaphragm is _____.
    relaxed dome shaped
  29. Normal air pressure equals _____ millimeters of mercury.
  30. The central chemoreceptors are sensitive to what?
  31. the peripheral chemoreceptors are sensitive to what?
  32. The central chemoreceptors are located in the _____?
    Medulla oblongata
  33. the medulla oblongata responds to(increased or decreased) CO2 and (low or high) pH.
    • Increased
    • lowered
  34. What are the 2 peripheral chemoreceptors ?
    • carotid bodies
    • aortic bodies
  35. Aortic bodies in the peripheral chemoreceptors respond to (increased or decreased) O2.
  36. interacts with the medullary respiratory centers to smooth the respiratory centers to smooth the respiratory pattern.
    Pontine respiratory group
  37. contains rhythm generators whose output drives respiration. regulates the normal regular breathing
    ventral respiratory group
  38. modifies the rhythms of breathing
    Dorsal respiratory group
  39. Two parts of the respitory center
    • Pons
    • medulla
  40. Receptors such as pain and emotion are locared where?
  41. Inspiration:
    Nerve impulses travel on _____ nerve to muscles of diaphragm, contracting them. As the moves downward the thoracic cavity expands. The intra-alveolar pressure _____. Atmospheric pressure, which is _____ on the outside, forces air into the respitory tract through the air passage way. Air fills up lungs.
    • Phrenic
    • decreases
    • higher
  42. Expiration:
    The _____ and external respitory muscles _____.Tissues recoil aound the lungs and _____ the intra-aveolar pressure. Then air is squeezed out of the lungs.
    • Diaphragm
    • relax
    • increase
  43. What is the average Tidal volume?
    500 mL
  44. what is the total lung capacity?
  45. What is the total vital capacity?
  46. Severe shortage of oxygen in tissues
  47. Temporary absense of respiration that may follow hyperventilation
  48. suffocation
  49. Bronchiolar muscle spasms; constriction.
  50. difficult breathing
  51. spasmodic contraction of the diaphragm, causing short, abrupt inspiration.
  52. Deep breaths is released in a series of short expirations
    Laughing and crying
  53. deep breath is taken, glottis is closed, and air ir forced against the closure; suddenly the glottis is opened, and a blast of air passes upward
  54. Oxygen combines with iron atoms of hemoglobin molecules to form ?
  55. about _____% of carbon dioxide dissolves in plasma.
  56. about _____% combines with the amino groupsof hemoglobin molecules to form carbaminohemoglobin.
  57. about _____% of carbon dioxide reacts with water to form carbonic acid.