ANAT.Exam.3

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xiongav
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145141
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ANAT.Exam.3
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2012-04-03 19:15:06
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Blood
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  1. What are the 4 functions of Blood?

    Hint: TRPB
    1) Transport

    2) Regulate body temp.

    3) Protects against blood loss by mediating clotting

    4) Blood is a connective tissue
  2. What are the 4 functions of blood Transportation?

    Hint: O2/CO2
    Transports:

    1) O2 from lungs --> body, and CO2 from body --> lungs.

    2) Nutrients from intestines --> body, waste from body --> kidneys.

    3) Hormones & enzymes.

    4) Cells of the immune system.
  3. Plasma (92% water).

    Contains? (4)

    Hint: WHIN.
    • Contains:
    • 1) Waste
    • 2) Hormones
    • 3) Ions
    • 4) Nutrients
  4. What are the 3 main Plasma proteins? (Hint: FAG)

    Define each.

    What is the fluid removal of fibrin from plasma, called?

    What do Regulatory proteins consist of? ( < 1% of all plasma protein)
    • Plasma proteins:
    • 1) Albumin: gives blood viscosity; responsible for colloid pressure which draws fluid from interstitial space back into blood vessels.

    2) Globulins: transporters (hemoglobin) or antibodies (immunoglobulins); 37% of plasma proteins.

    • 3) Fibrinogen: element of coagulation (clotting)
    • -Clotting factors convert fibrinogen into fibrin.

    Serum fluid.

    Reg. proteins: enzymes & hormones < 1% of all plasma proteins.
  5. What is the "normal" volume of blood in men/women?
    Men: 5-6 L.

    Women: 4-5 L.
  6. Whole blood (percentages).

    Percent in blood.

    Plasma?

    Erythrocytes (how many in a healthy person?)

    Leukocytes & Platelets

    *Erythrocytes and Leukocytes are formed elements.

    *Blood is withdrawn and centrifuged.
    Plasma: 55% (and Serum)

    Erythrocytes: 45% (25 trillion in a healthy person)

    Leukocytes & Platelets: < 1%
  7. Erythrocytes (RBCs)

    What must be present in order for gas exchange?

    What are RBCs main function?
    Carries O2 & CO2.

    Capillary/capillary must be present for gas exchange.

    Main function: transport O2 and CO2
  8. What is Hematocrit?

    What is the formula to determine hematocrit?

    PCV for males/females?
    Hematocrit: Packet cell volume (PCV)

    PCV = RBC volume / total cell volume x 100%

    • Males: 40-50%
    • Females: 36-44%
  9. Characteristics of Erythrocytes. (A)

    Small/large surface area?

    Nucleus?

    Life span?
    Large surface area to absorb O2.

    No nucleus.

    Lifespan: 120 days
  10. Characteristics of Erythrocytes. (B)

    Erythropoiesis (production of RBCs) occurs where?

    What stimulates this?
    Production of RBCs occurs in the RED BONE MARROW.

    Stimulated by HORMONE.
  11. Characteristics of Erythrocytes. (C)

    Bone Marrow.

    Where is bone marrow contained in?

    What are the 2 types?
    Inside ALL bones.

    1) Red marrow

    2) Yellow marrow
  12. Characteristics of Erythrocytes. (C)

    Bone marrow.

    What is the function of Red Marrow?

    Where is it found? (6)
    Function: generates RBCs.

    Found: pelvis, vertebrae, sternum, ribs, skull, scapula.
  13. Characteristics of Erythrocytes. (C)

    Bone marrow.

    What is the function of Yellow marrow?

    Found? (4)
    Function: produce cells, and become red, when needed.

    • Found: (long bones)
    • -Tibia, fibula, radius, ulna
  14. Characteristics of Erythrocytes. (D)

    Hemoglobin.

    A red blood cell is what % hemolobin?

    What is the function of Hb?
    RBC is 97% hemoglobin.

    Function: oxygen carrying protein.
  15. Characteristics of Erythrocytes. (E)

    Where do dead RBCs go?

    What do macrophages do?
    Dead RBCs are recycled by macrophages in the spleen.

    • Macrophages: macro = "big", phage = "eat up"
    • -Eats dead RBCs
  16. What does the majority of marrow consist of? (red or yellow)
    Majority consists of YELLOW MARROW.
  17. Life-span of an Erythrocyte.

    Name the 6 steps.

    What is "jaundice"?
    • 1) 3 million/sec.
    • 2) Circulate for 120 days (700 miles!).
    • 3) Heme to Fe2+ + bilirubin by MØ.
    • 4) Globin to AAs (amino acids).
    • 5) Bilirubinto bile in liver .
    • 6) Iron used for Heme.

    • Jaundice: (fr. "yellow") - too much bilirubin (bile) in blood.
    • -excessive RBC destruction
  18. Rh Factor (Antigen D)

    2 characteristics of Rh positive?

    2 characteristics of Rh negative?

    What is Hemolytic Disease?
    • Rh +
    • 1) Has the D antigen present on the RBC.
    • 2) Has no anti-D antibodies present in plasma.

    • Rh -
    • 1) DOES NOT have D antigen or RBCs
    • 2) Produces anti-D antibodies in plasma when exposed to D antigen.

    Hemo. disease: Rh + mother (lacking antiD antibodies) can carry an Rh - fetus without problems.
  19. Leukocytes (WBCs)

    Characteristics
    1) Where do they function?
    2) Produced?
    3) Increased WBCs can indicate?
    4) Classified as? (2)
    1) Unlike RBCs, funciton OUTSIDE of blood vessels in connective tissue.

    2) Produced in bone marrow and released continuously.

    3) Increased WBCs in blood sample indicates INFECTION.

    Classified as: granulater or agranulater
  20. What are the 3 granulated, leukocytes (WBCs)?
    • Granulated (mnemonic); BEN
    • 1) Basophil
    • 2) Eosinophil
    • 3) Neutrophil
  21. Leukocyte (WBCs)

    Granulocyte characteristics

    (Remember mnemonic, BEN).
    -Explain structure shape
    -% of WBCs
    -function
    • Basophil
    • -S or U shaped nucleus
    • -1% of all WBCs
    • -Histamine granules

    • Eosinophil
    • -Two-lobed nucleus
    • -3% of all WBCs
    • -Kills parasites

    • Neutrophil
    • -Several-lobed nucleus
    • -Polymorhonuclear cells
    • -70% of WBCs-Phagocytize
  22. What are Agranulocytes (no granules)?

    (2)

    -Explain structure shape
    -% of WBCs
    -Function
    • 1) Monocyte
    • -U shaped nucleus
    • -5% of all WBCs
    • -Circulating macrophages

    • Lymphocyte
    • -Round nucleus
    • -30% of all WBCs
    • -Immune attack cells
  23. Platelets.

    Aka?

    Are platelets, cells?

    Draw/explain the pathway for blood clot formation (5 steps)
    aka: Thrombocytes

    NOT cells.

    • Blood clot formation:
    • 1) Vessel damage -->
    • 2) Platelets adhere to tear and secrete -->
    • 3) Fibronogin becomes fibrin -->
    • 4) Fibrin platelets & cells = clot -->
    • 5) = Constrict
  24. Distribution of Formed Elements and cells in blood.

    What are the 3 formed elements?

    Review: What are the 3 granulocytes; give their % counts.
    • 1) Platelets
    • 2) Leukocytes
    • 3) Erythrocytes

    • 3 granulocytes: (from largest count to smallest = NEB)
    • 1) Neurophils (40-70%)
    • 2) Eosinophils (1-4%)
    • 3) Basophils (0-1%)
  25. Distribution of Formed Elements and cells in blood.

    Review: What are the 2 agranulocytes; give their % counts.

    (Hint: LM; from largest to smallest % count)
    1) Lymphocytes (20-45%)

    2) Monocytes (4-8%)
  26. Recite the mnemonic for the MOST abundant type of cell to the LEAST abundant type of cell.

    RPNLMEB
    • 1) RBC's
    • 2) Platelets
    • 3) Neutrophils
    • 4) Lymphocytes
    • 5) Monocytes
    • 6) Eosinophils
    • 7) Basophils
  27. What is the most abundant agranulocyte ?

    What is the most abundant anucleated formed element ?
    The most abundant agranulocyte is the LYMPHOCYTE.

    The most abundant anucleated formed elemment is the RBCs (contains NO NUCLEUS).
  28. In a CBC (complete blood count), what does this consist of? (usually ordered by physicians)

    4 blood counts
    • 1) hematocrit - reflects RBC count
    • 2) hemoglobin content
    • 3) RBC, WBC and platelet counts (number per cubic mm)
    • 4) blood smear for differential WBC
  29. Diagnosis of CBC (complete blood count).

    Give the diagnosis if:
    1) Increased RBC count?
    2) Decreased hematocrit or RBC?
    3) High Neutrophils?
    4) High Eosinophils?
    5) High Basophils?
    1) Increased RBC = Increased need for O2

    2) Decreased hematocrit = hemorrhage or anemic

    3) High Neutrophils = bacterial infection

    4) High Eosinophils = parasites or allergy

    5) High Basophils = inflammation/hypersensitivity
  30. What is Hematopoiesis?

    Where are myelos stem cells formed?

    Where are lymphoid stem cells formed?
    Hematopoiesis = cell formation.

    Myelos: formed in the MARROW.

    Lymphoid stem cells formed in the Lyphatic System.
  31. What are the primary cells of the immune system (lymphatic system)?

    What are 2 types of lymphocytes?
    Primary cells = lymphyocytes! (WBCs)

    • 2 types:
    • 1) T - lymphocytes (as in "Thymus")
    • 2) B - lymphocytes (as in "Bone Marrow")
  32. T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes are the immune's response to do what?

    How is each mediated?

    What are the two analogous to?
    Immune response to = attack INFECTIONS.

    • T-lymph is: "cell-mediated")
    • B-lymph is: "humoral-mediated"; immunoglobins or antibodies)

    • T-lymphocytes are analogous to "stabbing killers"
    • B-lympocytes are analogous to "shooting" antibodies
  33. How are bacteria destroyed by B-lymphocytes (shoot)?
    -Give the 4 steps.
    • Overcoming bacteria:
    • 1) B-lymphocytes..
    • 2) Gives rise to Plasma cells which secretes Antibodies.
    • 3) Antibodies BIND to ANTIGENS on bacteria, marking bacteria for DESTRUCTION.
    • 4) Antibodies COAT bacteria and Phagocytize.
  34. Explain the process of T-lymphocytes and their function to "stab" (kill) cells.

    4 steps.
    • 1) T-lymphocytes..
    • 2) BINDS to Target cell, secretes Proteins that lyse the cell's membrane and signals the cell to die.
    • 3) T-lymphocytes detaches and..
    • 4) Target cell dies by Apoptosis (programmed cell death; self destruction).

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