Card Set Information
Chapter 15 - immunity --test 3
True or false? Nonspecific mechanisms of defense fight or prevent all types of infection, while specific defenses utilize different mechanisms for different types of infection.
Physical and chemical barriers would be the ______ line of defense
Skin, mucous membranes, and saliva are examples of ________ defenses
What is our primary physical barrier against disease?
defensive cells & proteins, fever, and inflammation are the ______ line of defense
cells distinguish self from non-self by using ___________, which are unique to pathogens. Also bind with toll-like receptors
PAMPs (pathogen-associated molecular patterns)
secreted regulatory molecules that recruit or activate more immune cells are called _________
______ are the first to arrive at an infection, followed by macrophages/monocytes
many ________ are organ specific in the spleen, lymph nodes, lungs, and brain.
Neutrophils and monocytes squeeze through gaps in venule walls to enter tissue in a process called __________
the binding of antibodies to antigens does not destroy a pathogen; instead it labels a target for ________
phagocytosis / attack / etc
a group of plasma proteins activated by the binding of antibodies to antigens are called ___________. They promote lysis, inflammation, phagocytosis etc.
Fever is regulated by the _____________
endogenous ____________ set the body temperature higher
While ____ is(are) caused by white blood cells releasing histamine in localized areas, ____ is(are) caused by systemic histamine release.
redness, heat, swelling, & pain are _____________ responses
mast cells release _____________, which causes dialated vessels and increased capillary permeability
inflammation is initiated by __________ mechanisms
Formation of antigen-antibody complexes amplifies nonspecific response, a process called ______________
Signs of the inflammatory reaction are caused by _________.
vasodialation & histamine
The acquired ability to defend against specific pathogens after exposure to these pathogens is called __________ immunity (mediated by antigens and antibodies)
Smaller, nonantigenic molecules that can become antigens when bound to other proteins are called _________. (SUCH AS in poison ivy: urishiol -> quinone, which reacts with skin proteins)
small non-antigenic molecules that are useful in creating antigens- in research and diagnosis
the agglutination (clumping) of particles & antibodies is measured in tests known as ________
__-lymphocytes do NOT produce antibodies; they must be in close proximity to destroy the victim cell (AKA cell-mediated immunity)
_-lymphocytes are active in humoral immunity; They secrete antibodies and combat bacterial infections
__- lymphocytes divide into memory cells and plasma cells
_-lymphocytes divide into cytotoxic, helper, and suppressor cells
Helper T-cells alert plasma (B) and cytotoxic (T) cells during cell-mediated responses. These helper cells are the target of the ____ virus
What molecules are found on the surface of both T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes that identify foreign invaders?
Which cell type produces antibodies? Helper T cell, Macrophage, Plasma cell, OR Suppressor T cell?
Which cell type is the most important antigen-presenting cell (APC)?
What is the importance of immunological memory? It saves _______
Killer T cells secrete _______ to create pores in the victim cell, while it secretes ______ to trigger apoptosis in the victim cell
_________ Improve ability of B lymphocytes to become plasma cells and enhance ability of cytotoxic T cells to kill targets
Generalized (innate/nonspecific) immunity includes ________ & ___________ protection
physical ; chemical
Specialized (specific) immunity involves ______ & ________
T-cells and B-cells, etc
genetic deficiencies in regulatory T-lymphocyte production may develop _______________
autoimmune diseases and allergies
Dendrite cells and macrophages (APC) help t-cells bind to _________
Injection of anti-hepatitis antibodies after exposure to hepatitis A is an example of ____ immunity.
An infant who is NOT breast-fed is missing out on the continuation of which type of immunity?
HIV attacks many types of white blood cells. Disabling which blood cell type prevents the activation of the entire immune response?
_______ are abnormal clonal cells that dedifferentiate to an embryonic state. (due to mutation or viral antigen)
____________ arise when the immune cells fail to stop the growth/spread of tumors
Tumor cells can evade immune surveillance by suppressing immunity with secretions of _________
part of innate immunity, __________ cells do not have the ability to recognize specifc antigens
Natural killer cells
________ is Produced by failure of immune cells to tolerate �self� antigens
The cell-mediated response of the immune system uses ____, while the antibody-mediated response uses _____.
T and B cells; antibodies
When a macrophage first encounters a pathogen, it activates ____ T cells, which activate ____ T cells.
If the immune system mistakenly launches an attack against �self� cells, it is the ____ cells that cause life-long autoimmune problems.
When do autoimmune disorders occur?
When the immune system attacks �self� cells.
While ____ cause normal immune responses, ____ cause asthma
________ is a determining factor in successful organ transplant compatability
MHC --major histocompatibility complex
allergies are in most part activated by immunoglobulin ___
protection from future invasion is _________ immunity
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is used to determine _________
after being engulfed, the __________ (enzyme) breaks down bacteria