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refers to the measure of an organ based metabolic by-products such as enzymes and metabolites including ions.
5 causes of hemolysis
- condensation build-up
- shaking sample in tube
- applying supernatent without a needle to reagent
- too much alcohol at the site
- expeling blood forcefully
which blood type sample is without fibrinogen
10 things plasma is composed of
- waste materials
which sample do you test is you are testing for fibrin
When getting a Total protein, we test which sample and why?
plasma because serum is missing protein fibrinogen.
What 4 things can manipulate TP readings
- food intake
- hepatic dz
- GI dz
what 3 types of protein do we monitor
35-50% of TP affected by food and water intake, renal, hepatic dz, and intestinal absorbtion
is made up of protein known as immunoglobins
What are the 3 immunoglobins?
alpha, beta, gamma
what is the albumin: globulin ratio
the ratio between A and G. Albumin should normally be higher the globulin except during immune responses.
when the by-product of metabolism may be recirculated back into the system instead of being removed by the liver
what results from ammonia when a portosystemic shunt exists
encephalopathy because ammonia may cross blood brain barrier and cause neurological symptoms
The liver is responsible for 5 functions
- brain function
- lipoprotein levels
- albumin production
- globulin production
An organ that is responsible for metabolic manufactering and digestive processes.
liver enzymes we monitor in the lab
a transferase is
enzyme in cats, dogs, and primates that functions in transferring a certain group form one molecule to another.
which two enzymes are associated with liver damage when both are abnormal
AST and ALT
liver specific enzyme in horses and ruminants
liver enzyme found in blood, cardiac cells, muscle cells, kidney, and pancreatic cells.
Liver specific enzyme in avians and ruminants
liver enzyme found in avian and ruminants and secondary to renal, mammary, biliary, or hepatic dz
and what 2 conditions are associated with this enzyme
cholestasis and cholestitis
liver enzyme in which has multiple isoenzymes and are found in osteoblasts, intestine, placenta, and the liver.
liver specific enzyme in dogs, cats, and primates
5 hepatocyte functionality tests
which one is an ELISA
- bile acid test
- BSP test
- ammonia tolerance test
5 functions of hemostasis for the kidney
11 Renal tests
- BUN/Creatinine Ratio
- urine P/C
- uric Acid test
- GFR test
- creatinine clearance test
- exogenous Creatinine clearance test
- inulin tests
- water deprivation test
- fractional clearance test
- urethral pressure profile test
BUN level is affected by (5)
- renal failure
- protein intake
- liver function
creatinine is ...
a metabolite of creatine
creatine is ...
a muscle by-product that should be excreted from the bdoy at a constant rate in dogs and cats.
condition characterized by the increase in both BUN and creatinine.
tests the ratio between protein and creatinine wich should be 1:1. This is tested by cystocentesis.
urine P/C test
presence of small protein molecules in urine is believed to be a early sign of renal or other dz.
a useful urine tests for avians but may be too late when tests are positive
uric acid test
a renal test that uses inulin, creatinine, or urea to estimate the pace of filtration and requires a mathemathical formula
renal test that checks if creatinine clearance is constant by checking plasma levels and using a mathematical formula
endogenous creatinine clearance
renal test that checks if creatinine clearance is constant by administering creatinine SQ and rinsing bladder and checking levels and using a mathematical formula
exogenous creatinine clearance
a renal test that tests how well the glomueulus is functioning and not tubular function. We give inulin and check serum every 20 minutes 4 times and use a mathematical formula
polysaccharide that shows glomerular function.
renal test that tests the kidneys ability to concentrate urine and balance fluids by monitoring SG and BUN and this is accomplished by fasting and dehydrating animal until 5% of body weight is lost, animal is ill, or dehydrated. NOT USED!
water deprivation test
a renal test that will uncover is a disorder is pre-renal or post-renal
fractional clearance test
renal tests of sphinter muscles functionality only
urethral pressure profile test
a gland organ with endocrine and exocrine functions
3 test for exocrine pancreatic enzymes
- and amylase testing
a radioimmunoassay which tests for trypsin.
trypsin-like immunoreactivity (TLI)
protein found in feces in abundance
an alternative way of finding trypsin in feces
mix bicarb with fecs and put in an undeveloped pece of x-ray film. if it develops there is trypsin.
test that uncovers lipase level
Pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (PLI)
2 DONT'S in testing for amylase levels
- DONT use EDTA tubes for plasma
- DONT use Lipemic serum samples
4 exocrine pancreatic enzymes
hormone that transports glucose into the cells of the body for anabolism
condition in which glucose in found in urine as a result of lack of glucose
test in which we check BG before giving insulin with food and test levels every 2 hours with a sodium fluoride anticoagulant in a fasted animal to preserve glucose. this test defines the patients curve and how much insulin is needed, if any