Clin Lab- General Clin Chem

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  1. refers to the measure of an organ based metabolic by-products such as enzymes and metabolites including ions.
  2. 5 causes of hemolysis
    • condensation build-up
    • shaking sample in tube
    • applying supernatent without a needle to reagent
    • too much alcohol at the site
    • expeling blood forcefully
  3. which blood type sample is without fibrinogen
  4. 10 things plasma is composed of
    • water
    • proteins
    • carbohydrates
    • vitamins
    • hormones
    • enzymes
    • lipids
    • salts
    • waste materials
    • antibodies
  5. which sample do you test is you are testing for fibrin
  6. When getting a Total protein, we test which sample and why?
    plasma because serum is missing protein fibrinogen.
  7. What 4 things can manipulate TP readings
    • food intake
    • hepatic dz
    • GI dz
    • hydration
  8. what 3 types of protein do we monitor
    • albumin
    • globulin
    • fibrinogen
  9. 35-50% of TP affected by food and water intake, renal, hepatic dz, and intestinal absorbtion
  10. is made up of protein known as immunoglobins

    What are the 3 immunoglobins?

    alpha, beta, gamma
  11. what is the albumin: globulin ratio
    the ratio between A and G. Albumin should normally be higher the globulin except during immune responses.
  12. when the by-product of metabolism may be recirculated back into the system instead of being removed by the liver
    Portosystemic shunt
  13. what results from ammonia when a portosystemic shunt exists
    encephalopathy because ammonia may cross blood brain barrier and cause neurological symptoms
  14. The liver is responsible for 5 functions
    • brain function
    • lipoprotein levels
    • albumin production
    • globulin production
    • hemostasis
  15. An organ that is responsible for metabolic manufactering and digestive processes.
  16. liver enzymes we monitor in the lab
    • SHD
    • GGT
    • GLDH
    • ALT
    • AST
    • ALP
  17. a transferase is
    enzyme in cats, dogs, and primates that functions in transferring a certain group form one molecule to another.
  18. which two enzymes are associated with liver damage when both are abnormal
    AST and ALT
  19. liver specific enzyme in horses and ruminants
  20. liver enzyme found in blood, cardiac cells, muscle cells, kidney, and pancreatic cells.
  21. Liver specific enzyme in avians and ruminants
  22. liver enzyme found in avian and ruminants and secondary to renal, mammary, biliary, or hepatic dz

    and what 2 conditions are associated with this enzyme

    cholestasis and cholestitis
  23. liver enzyme in which has multiple isoenzymes and are found in osteoblasts, intestine, placenta, and the liver.
  24. liver specific enzyme in dogs, cats, and primates
  25. 5 hepatocyte functionality tests

    which one is an ELISA
    • cholesterol
    • bilirubin
    • bile acid test
    • BSP test
    • ammonia tolerance test
  26. 5 functions of hemostasis for the kidney
    • electrolytes
    • pH
    • water
    • nutrients
    • elimination
  27. 11 Renal tests
    • BUN/Creatinine Ratio
    • urine P/C
    • microalbuminuria
    • uric Acid test
    • GFR test
    • creatinine clearance test
    • exogenous Creatinine clearance test
    • inulin tests
    • water deprivation test
    • fractional clearance test
    • urethral pressure profile test
  28. BUN level is affected by (5)
    • renal failure
    • dehydration
    • exercise
    • protein intake
    • liver function
  29. creatinine is ...
    a metabolite of creatine
  30. creatine is ...
    a muscle by-product that should be excreted from the bdoy at a constant rate in dogs and cats.
  31. condition characterized by the increase in both BUN and creatinine.
  32. tests the ratio between protein and creatinine wich should be 1:1. This is tested by cystocentesis.
    urine P/C test
  33. presence of small protein molecules in urine is believed to be a early sign of renal or other dz.
  34. a useful urine tests for avians but may be too late when tests are positive
    uric acid test
  35. a renal test that uses inulin, creatinine, or urea to estimate the pace of filtration and requires a mathemathical formula
    GFR test
  36. renal test that checks if creatinine clearance is constant by checking plasma levels and using a mathematical formula
    endogenous creatinine clearance
  37. renal test that checks if creatinine clearance is constant by administering creatinine SQ and rinsing bladder and checking levels and using a mathematical formula
    exogenous creatinine clearance
  38. a renal test that tests how well the glomueulus is functioning and not tubular function. We give inulin and check serum every 20 minutes 4 times and use a mathematical formula
    inulin tests
  39. polysaccharide that shows glomerular function.
  40. renal test that tests the kidneys ability to concentrate urine and balance fluids by monitoring SG and BUN and this is accomplished by fasting and dehydrating animal until 5% of body weight is lost, animal is ill, or dehydrated. NOT USED!
    water deprivation test
  41. a renal test that will uncover is a disorder is pre-renal or post-renal
    fractional clearance test
  42. renal tests of sphinter muscles functionality only
    urethral pressure profile test
  43. a gland organ with endocrine and exocrine functions
  44. 3 exocrine enzymes
    • amylase
    • trypsin
    • lipase
  45. 3 test for exocrine pancreatic enzymes
    • TLI
    • PLI
    • and amylase testing
  46. a radioimmunoassay which tests for trypsin.
    trypsin-like immunoreactivity (TLI)
  47. protein found in feces in abundance
  48. an alternative way of finding trypsin in feces
    mix bicarb with fecs and put in an undeveloped pece of x-ray film. if it develops there is trypsin.
  49. test that uncovers lipase level
    Pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (PLI)
  50. 2 DONT'S in testing for amylase levels
    • DONT use EDTA tubes for plasma
    • DONT use Lipemic serum samples
  51. 4 exocrine pancreatic enzymes
    • glucagon
    • insulin
    • somatostatin
    • polypeptides
  52. hormone that transports glucose into the cells of the body for anabolism
  53. condition in which glucose in found in urine as a result of lack of glucose
    diabetes mellitus
  54. test in which we check BG before giving insulin with food and test levels every 2 hours with a sodium fluoride anticoagulant in a fasted animal to preserve glucose. this test defines the patients curve and how much insulin is needed, if any
    glucose curve
Card Set:
Clin Lab- General Clin Chem
2012-04-02 02:48:46

clinical chemistry
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