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  1. Motivation
    • Result of the interaction between an individual and situation
    • The processes taht account for an individuals intesnsity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal
  2. Key elements of motivation
    • Intensity: how hard one person tries
    • Direction: if benefits organization
    • Persistance: How long a person can maintain effort.
  3. Maslows Need Hierarchy
    • Physicolgocial: hunger, thirst, shelter, sex
    • Safely: security and protection
    • Social: affection, accpentance
    • Esteem: internal factors
    • Self-actualiaztion: achiving one's potential
  4. Lower order Need
    • Physiological and safetly
    • Needs that are satified externally
  5. Self-Actualization
    The dirve to become what a person is capable of becoming
  6. Higher-order Needs
    • Social, esteem, and self actualiztion
    • Needs that are satifeid internally
  7. Theory X
    • Assumption that employees dislike work, are lazy, dislike respnsibility and must coerce to perform
    • Negative
  8. Theory Y
    • McGregor
    • The assumption taht employeesl ilke work, are creative, seek resonisbilt, and can exercise seft-direction
    • Higher order needs dominate individuals
  9. Two-Factor thearoy
    • Herxbers (motivation hygiene)
    • Relates intrinsic factos to hob staifaction and associates extrinsic factors with dissatisfaction.
    • The chart with different factors
    • Respondents felt good about work, to them self
    • Dissatisfied cited oustide like place, conditionms, pay
  10. Hygiene factors
    • Factos such as company policy and adminsitratimo supervisiona dn salary that when adequate in a job placate workers.
    • Whe these factors are adequate, people will not be dissatisfied
  11. McClellands Need theory
    A theory which states that achievment powr\er and affiliation are three mportant needs taht help explain motivation
  12. Different Needs
    • Need for achievment: drive to excel to acheive in realation to set of sandards to trive to succed
    • Need for power: need to make others behave in a away in which the would not have behaved otherwise
    • Need for affiliation: is the desire for friendly and clost inerpersonal relationaships
  13. Goal Setting theory
    A theory that says that specific and difficult goals with feedback lead to higher performance
  14. Smart Goals
    • Specific
    • Measurable
    • Attainable
    • Relevent
    • Time-bound
  15. Rienfocement theory
    • That says taht behavior is function of it's consequencesa
    • Ignorse iner state and focuses on what happens when individual takes some action
  16. Throndikes law of effect
    Behvior with favorable consequences is repeated
  17. Operant/Skinner
    • Negative reienfocement is avoicdence learning
    • Rienforcemebnt
    • Punsihment
    • extinction
  18. Classical conditionng
    2 stimuli together like dog
  19. Equity Theory
    • Individuals compare their job inputs and coutcomes wsith those of others and then respond to eliminate any inequities
    • Self-insides: employee';s experiences in a diff position inside the employee;s current org
    • Self-outside: and emplyees experence in sit or posit outside current org
    • Other-inside: another indiv or group of indi inside employees org
    • Other-outside: another indivi or grou of indvi outside the emplyee;s org
  20. Expectancey Theory
    • Strength of tendencey to act in a certain way depends on the strentth of an expectation that the act will be follwed bya given outcome an on the attrictmenss of that outcome to the individ.
    • Effeort --> performance --> rewards --> persnoal golas
  21. Distributive Justice
    Perceived fairness of the amount and allocation of rewards amoung individuals
  22. Orgnaizational Justice
    Overalll perception of what is fair in the workplace composed of distributive, procedual, and interactional
  23. Procedual Justice
    • Percieved fairness of the process used to determine the distribution of rewards
    • Process control: opportunity to presnt on's point of view about desired outcomes to decions makers
    • Explantaions: clear reason why
  24. Interaactional Justice
    Indiveiduals percepton of the degree to which she is treated with dignity, concern, and respect
  25. Job Characteristics model
    • Any job can be described in terms of 5 core job dimensions
    • Skill wariety
    • Task identity
    • Task significance
    • Autonomy
    • Feedback
  26. Skill wariety
    Degree to which a job requies a variety of different activiites so the worker can use a number of diffferenct skillsa nd talent
  27. TAsk identity
    • The degree to which a job requies completion of a whold and identifialbe piece of work
    • Ex: cabinemaker finish through completion
  28. Task Significance
    Degree to which a job has a substantial impace onthe lives or work of other people
  29. Autonomy
    Degree to which a job provides substantial freedom, independence, and discretion to the indiv in scheduling the work and in determing the procedues to be used in carriying it out
  30. Feedback
    Degree to which carryin g out the work activites requied by a job results in the indiv obtaining direct and clear info about the effectivness of his or her perfonrmance.
  31. Job Rotation
    • The periocid shifint of an emplyee form one task to another
    • reduces boardom, increases motivation and helps them undesrand their work contributions
  32. Job enlargment
    Increasing the number and variety of taht s that an indiv perfomrs. Makes jobs have more diversity
  33. Job Enrichment
    Regers to the vertiacl expansion of jobs, which increase the degree of which the worker controls the panning, execution, an evalution of the work.
  34. Alternative work arrangments
    • Flextime: Allows employees when want to arrive and leave
    • Job Sharing: allows two or moar indiv to split traditional 40 hour week. Draws talents of more than one indi for job
    • telecommuting: Working forom home with computer linked to company
  35. Implicatons for manager
    • Rcongnize individual differences
    • Use goals and feedback
    • Allow employees to participate in decions that affect them
    • link reward to performance
    • Check the system for equity
  36. 5 Stage model for Group development
    • Forming: first stage, characterized by much uncertainty
    • Storming: Second stage, characterized by intragroup conflict
    • Norming: Third stage, characterized by close relationships and cohesiveness
    • Performing: Fourth stage, during which the grou is fully functional (for perment group this is last stage)
    • Adjourning: Final stage, comcern with wrapping up activities rather than task performance
  37. Roles
    A seet of expected behavior patterns attributed to somone occupying a given postion ina social unit.
  38. Role identity
    Ceratin attidues and behaviors consistent witha role
  39. Role Perception
    An individuals view of how he or she is supposed to act in a given situation
  40. Role Expectations
    How others believe a person should act in a given situation
  41. Psychological contract
    An unwritten agreement that ssets out what managment expects from an employee and vice versa
  42. Role conflict
    A stiuation in which an indiviual is confronted by divergent role expectaions
  43. Norms
    Acceptable stadars of behavior withina grou that are sharced by the groups members
  44. conformity
    The admustment of ones behavior to align with the norms of the group
  45. Reference Group
    Important groups to which individuals belong or hope to belong and with whose norms individuals are likely to conform
  46. Devient Workplace Behavior
    voluntary behavior that violates significant organiztion norms and in so doing threatens teh well bing of the org or it's members
  47. Status
    A socially defined position or rank given to groups or grou members by others
  48. Size
    • Size does affect group behavior.
    • Social Lafing: the tendency for indiv to expent less effor thwn working collectivley than whenm working individually
  49. cohesiveness
    The degree to which group members are attracted to each other and are motivated to stay in the group
  50. Group Decision Making
    • Strengths: generate more completed info
    • Bring in more input
    • Increased diversity
    • Increased acceptance of solution
    • Weaknesses: Time consuming
    • Conformity pressure
    • Discussions dominated by members
    • Ambiguous respnmsibility
  51. Groupthink
    • A phenomenon in which the norm for consensu overrides the ralist appraisal of alternaitve courses of action
    • Hold back what they really want to say
  52. Work Group
    A group that interacts primairy to shar info and to make deciosns to help each gropu member perfomr within his area of respnsibility
  53. Work Team
    A grou p whose indi efforts result in perfomnace that is greater than the sum of the individual inputs
  54. Problem-solving Teams
    Groups of 5-12 employeees from the same departnbe ent who meet for a few house each week to discuss ways of imprving quality, efficiency and the work enviornment
  55. Self-Managed work teams
    Groups of 10-15 people who take on respnsibilities of their former supervisores
  56. Cross-Functional Teams
    Employees from about the same bierarchial leve but from differnt work areas who come together to accomplisha task
  57. Virtual Teams
    Temas that use computer tch to tie together phsically dispersed memboers in order to achieve a common goal.
  58. Team effeectiveness Model
    • Context
    • Composition
    • Work Design
    • Process
  59. Context
    • The factores that most significanly help deterin wheather teams aer successful are
    • Adequate resouces
    • Leadership and structure
    • Climate of trust
    • Perfomrance evaluation and reward system
  60. Composition
    • Relate to how teams shoudl be staffed
    • Abiliites of members
    • Personalilty
    • Allocation rolesdiversity
    • Size of teams
    • Member flexability
    • Member aprefernces
  61. Work Design
    • Autonimoy
    • Skill variatety
    • Task identiy
    • Task significance
  62. Process
    • Common purpose
    • Specific goals
    • Team effficacy
    • Conflict levesl
    • Social Loafing
  63. Communication Process
    The steps betweena soucre and recieve that result in the transfer and understanind or meaning.
  64. Formal Channel
    Communication channesl establised by an org to tranmit messages rleated to the professional activiites of membesr
  65. Informal channedls
    communication channels that ar creaed spontaneouls and that emerg as resoponses to individual choices
  66. Oral Communication
    • Speed and feedback are advantages
    • Disadvantage is when a message has to be spread through many people. Can become distorted
  67. Written Communcation
    • Memos, letters, fax transmissions, email, instanta messaging, org periodicals
    • Disadvantages of written is that it takes time, lack of feedback
  68. Nonverbal Communication
    • includes body movements, the intonations or emphasis we give tow rds, facial expressions, andteh physical distance between the sendera nd reciever.
    • Every body movement has a meaning and no movement is accidental
    • Most importantly conveys the extent someone likes someone, and the status between them
  69. Barriers to Effective communication
    • Filtering: Sender's manipulation of information so that it will be seen more favorable by the reciever
    • Selevtive Perception
    • Information overlaoad
    • Emotions
    • Language
    • Communication Apprehension: undue tension and anxiety about oral and written communication
    • Gender Differences
    • Politically correct communication
  70. Trust
    A Positive expectaion taht another will not- through words, actios or decisons-act opporutnistically
  71. Key dimentions of trust
    • Integrity
    • Competnce
    • Consistency
    • Openess
    • Loyalty
Card Set:
2012-04-02 20:22:44

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