Bio Exam 3

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Bio Exam 3
2012-04-02 00:14:34

Evolution and Protist
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  1. In Mendel's studies with peas all characters observed had only two traits. He figured that there was complete dominance between the two factors responsible to produce those traits. This is because:
    One of the alleles is dominant over the other.
  2. An individual Tt:
    A expresses only the recessive trait
    B may express either the dominant or the recessive trait
    C is heterozygous dominant
    D expresses only the dominant trait
    D Expresses only the dominant trait
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. A true-breeding individual:
    A. is always homozygous dominant
    B. is always homozygous recessive
    C. is always heterozygous
    D. is always homozygous
    D. is always homozygous
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. There is a gene for flower color where the dominant allele F is blue and the recessive allele f is white. What is this individual's genotype? Ff
  5. What is the genotypic ratio (HH:Hh:hh) resulting from the following cross: HhxHh?
  6. What is the phenotypic ratio resulting from the following cross: HhxHh?
  7. A disease that is caused by an allele from a gene in chromosome 10 in humans is:
    an autosomal disease
  8. When Mendel did not know the genotype of a plant, he would cross it with a homozygous recessive plant and observe the phenotypic ratio of the offspring. He called this:
    A test cross
  9. Mendel's Law of Segregation states that:
    alleles segregate into different gametes independant on the genotype
  10. The Law of Independent Assortment states that:
    Genes assort independent of other genes
  11. The Law of Independent Assortment does not apply to:
    Linked genes in general
  12. Considering two genes that are not located in the same chromosome what are the possible types of gametes produced by an individual RrFf?
    RF, Rf, rF, rf
  13. Which gametes could be produced by an individual RrFf if these two genes are located in the same chromosome?
    RF, rf
  14. What are the 5 conditions required for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?
    • Mutations do not occur
    • Mating is random
    • No migration in or out
    • Population is infinitely large
    • Natural selection does not occur
  15. Genetic drift differs from Natural Selection because:
    Genetic drift is due to chance and may not necessarily result in the survival of the fittest individuals
  16. When Norway rats and roof rats interbreed, the resulting embryo does not develop into a fetus. This is an example of:
    Hybrid inviability
  17. Coccus Bacteria
    Spherical or elliptical
  18. Bacillus Bacteria
    Rod shaped
  19. Spirillum Bacteria
    Form of helix or spiral
  20. Gram Stain
    • Differences in cell wall
    • Gram-Positive ends up purple
    • Gram-Negative ends up pink
  21. Transformation
    Acquisition of fragments of DNA from surroundings
  22. Transduction
    DNA fragments are transferred via viruses
  23. Conjugation
    Piece of DNA is transferred from one cell to another
  24. Evironmental and Economical Importance of Bacteria
    • Nutrient Cycle
    • Photosynthesis
    • Fermented food
    • Production of vitamins, chemicals, and proteins
    • Sewage treatment
  25. Algae
    • Photosynthetic
    • Examples:
    • Dinoflagellates
    • Diatoms
    • Seaweeds
  26. Dinoflagellates
    • Two flagella
    • Produce bioluminescence
    • Red tide
  27. Seaweeds
    • Green Algae
    • Red Algae
    • Brown Algae
  28. Slime molds
    • Body resembles that of fungus
    • Engulf food
  29. Water Molds
    • Diploid body as opposed to haploid body in fungi
    • Cell wall contains cellulose instead of chitin
  30. Diploid Cells
    Carry two alleles of each gene
  31. Situations in which Mendel's probabilities do not apply
    • Linked genes
    • Crossing over
  32. Sexual dimorphism
    • Males and females appear different
    • Fome differences make a male more obvious to predators
  33. Sexual selection
    • Type of natural selection
    • Results from variation in the ability to obtain mates
  34. Linnaeus
    • Gave scientific names to species
    • Hierarchical system of classification
    • Based on morphology
  35. Mayr
    • Biological species concept
    • Considered reproduction and genetics
    • Example is a Mule
  36. Ecological isolation
    • Different environments
    • example- ladybugs feed on different plants
  37. Temporal isolation
    • Active or fertile at different times
    • Field crickets mature at different rates
  38. Behavioral isolation
    • Different activities
    • Frog mating calls differ
  39. Mechanical isolation
    • Mating organs or pollinators incompatible
    • Sage species use different pollinators
  40. Gametic isolation
    • Gametes cannot unite
    • Sea urchin gametes incompatible
  41. Hybrid inviability
    • Hybrid offspring fail to reach maturity
    • Hybrid eucalyptusseeds and seedlings not viable
  42. Hybrid infertility
    • Hybrid offspring unable to reproduce
    • Liger infertile
  43. Hybrid Breakdown
    • Second generation hybrid offspring have reduced fitness
    • Offspring of hybrid mosquitoes have abnormal genitalia
  44. Modern extinctions
    20-200 extinctions per year per million species
  45. Phylogenies
    • Depict relationships based on evolution
    • Use multiple lines of evidence
  46. Cladistics
    • Defines groups by distinguishing between ancestral and derived characters
    • Builds on the concept of homology
  47. Homologous structures
    inherited from a common ancestor
  48. Ancestral character
    Inherited attributes that resemble those of the ancestor of a group
  49. Derived character
    Features that are different from those found in the group's ancestor