Chapter 5 Terms

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marji.mulder
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145190
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Chapter 5 Terms
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2012-04-02 03:52:45
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neuroscience synaptic transmission
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Synaptic Transmission
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  1. synaptic transmission
    the process of transferring information from one cell to another at a synapse
  2. electrical synapse
    a synapse in which electrical current flows directly from one cell to another via a gap junction
  3. chemical synapse
    a synapse in which presynaptic activity stimulates the release of neurotransmitter, which activates receptors in the postsynaptic membrane
  4. gap junction
    a specialized junction where a narrow gap between two cells that is spanned by protein channels called connexons that allow ions to pass directly from one cell to another.
  5. postsynaptic potential
    a change in the posynaptic membrane potential by the presynaptic action of an electrical synapse or a synaptically released neurotrasmitter
  6. secretory granule/dense-core vesicle
    a spherical membran encolse vesicle about 100 nm in diameter containing peptides intended for secretion by exocytosis
  7. membrane differentiation
    a dense accumulation of protien adjacent to and within the membrane on either side of a synaptic cleft
  8. active zone
    a presynaptic membrane differentiation that is the site of neurotransmitter release
  9. postsynaptic density
    a postsynaptic membrane differentiation that is the site of neurotransmitter receptors
  10. neuromuscular junction
    a chemical synapse between a spinal motor neuron axon and a skeletal muscle fiber
  11. motor end plate
    the postsynaptic membrane at the neuromuscular junction
  12. gluatamate (Glu)
    an amino acid and the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system
  13. gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA)
    an amino acid sythesized from glutamate and the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system
  14. glycine (Gly)
    an amino acid and an inhibitory neruotransmitter at some locations in the central nervous system
  15. acetylcholine (ACh)
    an amine that serves as a neurotransmitter at many synapses in the peripheral and central nervous ststems including the neuromuscular junction
  16. transporter
    a membrane protein that ransports neurotransmitters or their precursors, across membranes to concentrate them in either presynaptic cytosol or synaptic vesicles
  17. voltage-gated calcium channel
    a membrane protein forming a pore that is permeable to Ca2+ ions and gated by depolarization of the membrane
  18. exocytosis
    the process whereby material is release from an intracellular vesicle into the extracellular space by fusion of the vesicle membrane with the cell membrane
  19. endocytosis
    the process by which a bit of the cell membrane is pinched off, internalized, and converted to an intercellular vesicle
  20. transmitter-gated ion channel
    a membrane protein forming a pore that is permeable to ions and gated by neurotransmitter
  21. excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP)
    depolarization of the postsynaptic membrane potential by the action of a synaptically released neurotransmitter
  22. inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP)
    a change in the postsynaptic membrane potential by the action of a synptically released neurotransmitter, making the postsynaptic neuron less likely to fire
  23. G-protein
    a membrane-enclosed protein that binds guanosine triphosphate (GTP) when activated by a membrane receptor, when activated these proteins can simulate or inhibit other membrane-enclosed proteins.
  24. G-protein coupled receptor
    a membrane protein that activates G-proteins when it binds neurotransmitter
  25. second messenger
    a short-lived chemical signal in the cytosol that can trigger a biochemical response. Its formation is usually stimulated by a first messenger such as a hormone or neurotransmitter acting at a G-protein coupled cell surface receptor. Examples include cAMP, cGMP, and IP3
  26. metabotropic receptor
    a G-protein-coupled receptor whose primary action is to stimulate an intracellular biochemical response
  27. autoreceptor
    a receptor in the membrane of a presynaptic axon terminal that is sensitive to the neurotransmitter released by that terminal
  28. neuropharmacology
    the study of the effects of drugs on the tissues of the nervous system
  29. inhibitor
    a drug or toxin that blocks the normal action of a protein or a biochemical process
  30. receptor agonist
    a drug that binds to a receptor and activates it
  31. nicotinic ACh receptor
    a class of acetylchoine-gated ion channels found in various locations, notably the neuromuscular junction
  32. synaptic integration
    the proce3ss by which multiple EPSPs and/or IPSPs combine within one ore postsynaptic neuron, in some cases triggering one or more action potentials
  33. minature postsynaptic potential
    a change in postsynaptic membrane potential caused by the action of neurotransmitter released from a single synaptic vesicle
  34. quantal analysis
    a method of determining how many vesicles release neurotranmitter during normal synaptic transmission
  35. EPSP summation
    a smiple form of synaptic integration whereby excitatory postsynaptic potentials combine to produce a larger postsynaptic depolarization
  36. spatial summation
    the combining of excitatory postsynaptic potentials generated at more than one synapse on the same cell
  37. temporal summation
    the combining of excitatory postsynaptic potentials generated in rapid succession at the same synapse
  38. length constant
    a paramater used to describe how far changes in membrane potential can passivley spread down a cable such as an axon or dendrite. Represented by the symbol , it is equal to the distance at which depolarization falls to 37% of the original value; is dependent on the ratio of membrane resistance (rm) to internal resistance (ri)
  39. internal resistance (ri)
    the resistance to electrical current flowing longidudinally down the cable or neurite
  40. membrane resistance (rm)
    the resistance to electrical current flow across a membrane
  41. shunting inhibition
    a form of synaptic inhibition in which the main effect is to reduce membrane reisistance, thereby shunting depolarizing current generated at excitatory synapses
  42. modulation
    a term used to describe the actions of neurotransmitters that do not directly evoke postsynaptic potentials but modify the cellular response to excitatory postsynaptic potentials and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials generated by other synpases
  43. norepinephrine (NE)
    a catecholamine neurotransmitter synthesized from dopamine, also called noradrenaline
  44. adenylyl cyclase
    an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), a second messenger
  45. cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)
    a second messenger formed frome adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by the action of the enzyme adenylyl cyclase
  46. potein kinase
    a class of enzymes that phosphorylate proteins, a reation that changes the conformation of the protein and its biological activity
  47. phosphorylation
    a biochemical reaction in which a phosphate group (PO42-) is transferred from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to another molecule, when this is done to proteins by protein kinases thier biological activity is changed

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