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a period in the life span of an individual (in birds a short perid just after hatching) where learning or imprinting is greatly facilitated.
form of learning in which individuals exposed to certain key stimuli, usually during an early stage of development, form an association with the object and may later show sexual behavior toward similar objects
the component of an action or object that triggers a fixed response in an animal. For example, a herring gull chick's begging response
ego defense mechanisms
- unconscious psychological strategies brought into play by various entities to cope with reality and maintain self image
psychological basis for mental disorders
comprehensive theory of personality
development of psychotherapy
role of the unconscious mind
concepts of ego, id and superego
theory of personality dynamics
psychosexual theory of development
ego defense mechanisms
getting stuck in one stage of development. for example, getting stuck in the anal stage, and never letting things go.
expression of the unconscious in everyday life caused by psychological tension.
slips of the tongue
interpretation of jokes and humor
an outlet of the libido, it is a compromise between desire and self-censorship
doing the opposite of what you are inwardly compelled to do because it is too anxiety provoking. For example a homosexual becoming a homophobe
giving a logical explanation but it is not the right explanation, hiding the right reason. For example, the dog ate my homeowrk
tendency to attribute some internal conflict onto something else
take a goal that is anxiety provoking and replace it with something that is not as provoking
the tendency to attribute human characteristics to animals that aren't justified. For example, thinking a dog wants to go on a walk, you don't know that he wants to. also Clever Hans math talents
just noticable difference
the unit of measure of the differential threshold
interaction of genotype and the enviornment (the finished product)
frontal lobe of the left hemisphere
hemispheric lateralization of function
loss of the ability to speak
the minimum change or difference between two stimuli that can be reliably detected
the just noticable difference for detecting a change in intensity is proportional to the intensity of the standard stimulus.
described a different pattern of language breakdown with injury to the temporal lobe of the left hemisphere, which he described as sensory aphasis
- -emphais on variation and individual differences
- -focus on the adaptive value of behavior and mental processes (functionalism)
- -spawned the new fields of ethology and comparative psychology
- -blind trial and error
minimum amount of physical stimulus that reliably evokes a sensation
the capacity of an intact part of the brain to take over the memory functions of a damaged portion
variation of hereditary origin
Thorndikes law of effect
when several responses are made to the same situation, those which are accompanied with rewards are more likely to be repeated, while those accompanied by punishment are more likely to be avoided
after some time, the response may reappear after extinction, and the conditioned stimulus will again elicit the conditioned response.
if the conditioned stimulus is paired repeatedly without the unconditioned stimulus, the conditioned response will eventually dissapear
at first, animals respond indisciminatly to a range of stimuli. By selective reinforcement, pavlov trained his animals to make a conditioned response to the reinforced stimulus, but not to other stimuli
conditioned responses often occur to stimuli that are similar to (but not identical to) the original conditioned stimulus
a neutral stimulus leads to a response as a result of being paired with another stimulus that already produces the response
an evolutionary approach to the study of animal behavior
role of natural selection and adaptation
a type of mental processing composed of a series of psychological transformations by which an individual can aquire, code, store, recall and decode information about the relative location and attributes of phenomena in their everyday enviornment.
awareness of all possible outcomes
a neurosis characterized by hypnotic suggestibility, also a weakness of the CNS
hypnotic suggestablility is a symptom of a mental disorder- a neurosis called hysteria
trichromatic theory of color vision
human color vision involces three colors, red, blue and green. The color receptors are the cones in the retina. An elaboration of Mullers law of specific nerve energies, suggesting that individual nerves transmit sensory images not only of a specific kind but also of a specific quality.
theory and methods of psychophysics
double aspect monism
mapping the functional relationship between physical and mental worlds
quantitative measurement of mental processes
fritsh and hitzig
showed that electrical stimulation of regions of the cortex in dogs produced specific responses of individual muscle groups (motor strip)
surface of the skull mirrors the exaggeration of functional areas in the cortex. Bumps on the skull are associated with faculties that are prominent in individuals
dark forms of the peppered moths were more prevalent in cities during the industrial revolution. More effective camoflauge for the dark moths provided by soot covered tree limbs and buildings
human populations can grow exponentially, they outgrow their means of subsistence. Population increases must be kept in check by war, famine or disease. Although there is the potential for growth, actual population growth is fairly constant
theory of evolution by acquired characteristics. ex. a giraffs neck. The all important role of enviornment
modes of reasoning
induction- combines facts to arrive at theoretical conclusions
deducation- uses theory to generate testable predictions
abduction- the process of hypothesis generation, viewed this as the creative aspect of science
icon-resembles its referent ex falling rocks sign
index- linked by association ex lightning and thunder
symbol- arbitrary link ex most words
his standard measure of treatment. He believed it led reliably to pathogenic ideas and attuned him to several subtle but important phenomena that had been masked by his previous reliance on hypnosis
freuds new field that used the cathartic method on his patients
a patient would be hypnotized and then would be asked to try to recall the first time they had experienced a physical sensation like one of her symptoms. Upon remembering she would be able to vent this previously suppressed emotion. Following this "catharsis" the symptom would disappear.
every dream originates with a series of latent thoughts or ideas, which the sleeping mind transforms into manifest content by three processes referred to collectively as dream work. Displacement, condensation and concrete representation
is a form of learning that is not immediately expressed in an overt response, it occurs without obvious reinforcement to be applied later.
a way to avoid anthropomorphism. We should never ascribe human characteristics if you can explain it in simpler terms
manifest content: doesn't make sense to the dreamer
latent: seemed to have the greatest personal signigicance for the dreamer. Patients often resisted uncovering this latent content.
patients tended to transfer onto him, as their therapist, motives and attributes of the important people from their past lives that were implicated in their neurotic symptoms
subjects in a trance were told they will perform a certain act after awakening but will forget that they have been instructed to do so, like scratch their ears when the hypnotist coughs.
the scientific study of the relationship between stimulus and sensation
thorndike then skinner
the use of consequences to modify the occurance and form of a behavior
most human behavior is the result of desires, impulses, and memories that have been repressed into an unconscious state yet they still influence actions
- genetic changes that take place in a popultaion. Resulting in speciation such as the finches on the Galapagos islands
operant conditioning chamber used in experimental analysis to study animal behavior
a hypothetical internal state that is used to explain relationships between observed variables, such as independent variables and dependent variables in empirical research
pairs of colors that are of opposite hue in a color model. In color theory, two colors are called complementary if when mixed in the proper proportion, they produce a neutral color
contingencies of reinforcement
the removal of an aversive stimulus results in the desired behavior
continuous- the desired behavior is reinforced every single time it occurs. Best used in initial stages of learning
partial- the response is reinforced only part of the time. Learned behaviors are acquired more slowly, but the response is more resistant to extinction
- -fixed ratio
- -variable ratio
- -fixed interval
- -variable interval
the understanding that objects continue to exist even when they cannot be seen, heard or touched. Infants develop this through touching and handling objects
regression to the mean
the phenomena that a variable that is extreme on its first measurement will tend to be closer to the center of the distribution on a later measurement.
law of specific nerve energies
the nature of perceptions is defined by the pathway over which the sensory information is carried. Ex. pressing on the eye and producing flashes of light
honeybee waggle dance
a figure 8 dance of the honeybee, used to share information with their hive mates about direction and distance to flowers, water or new housing locations
sensory nerves recieve sensory stimuli such as how something feels and if it is painful
motor nerves- neurons located in the CNS and directly or indirectly control muscles
identifies one or more specific observable conditions or events and then tells the researcher how to measure that event.
instinct as a set of reflexes activated by heredity
focus on biological and psychological similarities among animal species
conditioned fear: little Albert
gravity and magnetism
the "magnetic Baquet"
Debate in the history of neuroscience concerning the localization of function.
Descartes: the mind could not be localized in the brain because its structures were paired, how could consciousness occupy 2 places at once?
Florens-ablation studies on birds-launched debate
wernike and broca-lateralization of function
simple reaction time to visual stimulus
choice reaction time
pragmatism: philisophical theory of truth and meaning
theory of signs
modes of reasoning in science
key properties of consciousness according to James
the purpose of consciousness is to help people adapt to their enviornments
continious and indivisible
instinct and habit
james/lange theory of emotion
personal identity and the self
ideo-motor theory of behavior
James/Lange theory of emotion
we see a bear; this triggers a physiological response, which leads us to experience fear. Emotion is caused by bodily events, not the other way around.
an emotion is actually the consequence rather than the cause of the bodily changes associated with its expression. He developed this to overcome depression during his youthful crisis.
the mind as an epiphenomenon
relexes in the brain
inhibition and excitation
- Developed classical conditioning
- conditioned reflex
- two part theory of language
contrast skinners approach to language with that of chomsky.
chomsky: believed language is based on a system of rules and is a biological, species-specific trait.
chomsky's criticism of skinner: limits only to obervables, in something as complex as language you would expect internal functions to be important.
skinner: book-verbal behavior: some occurance triggers a response, only observableevents. All you need is an analysis of behavior.
established world first lab for experimental psychology
dual approach: introspection and experiment
tridemensional theory of feeling
sensory acuity, head size, reaction time
nature vs nurture
criticized galtons view of inherited intelligence
emphasized individual differences in intelligence, attention,motivation and background
mental age vs chronological age
binet-simon tests of intelligence
proposed as a method to measure childrens intelligence
releaser ex a yawn
stage theory of development
an active contruction of knowledge
intellectual development not gradual, but abrupt
Stage theory of development
sensory motor stage: 0-2, basic sensory and motor activities, object permanance to move on
preoperational stage: 2-7, not yet able to master math operations, conservation of quantituy (glasses) to move on
concrete operations stage: 7-11, less egocentric, mastery of abstract problems to move on
formal operations stage: 12-adult, able to master abstract and symbolic reasoning, metacognition, hypotherico-deductive reasoning
levels of linguistics
phonetics- articulation and perception of speech sounds
phonology: patterning of sounds in a language
morphology: principles of word formation
syntax: arrangement of morphemes in sentences
semantics: study of meaning
pragmatics: language use in social context
language as a system of rules
nativism: language as a biological, species-specific trait
surface and deep structure
components of natural selection. what was it developed for? how does it differ from artificial selection?
- -variability in traits
- -selection of desired characteristics
- -modification of structure or behavior over generations
unlike artificial selection, natural selection is not guided or purposeful, but instead is a "self generated outcome of interactions between organisms and their enviornment"
how did galton propose to measure human intelligence? what was wrong with this proposal?
he believed the power of the brain was related to head size and the speed that they can respond to things. It was wrong because intelligence involves higher mental processes such as thinking, reasoning and logic.
describe the formation of a conditioned response according to the classical conditioning theory developed by pavolv. Include an example, and describe the roles of the unconditioned stimulus, unconditioned response, conditioned stimulus and conditioned response
- -dogs have an innate tendency to salivate at the sight of food. Food is the unconditioned stimulus, salivation the unconditioned response
- -next, the unconditioned stimulus (food) is presented with a conditioned stimulus that does not elicit the response ex.c the sound of a metronome
- -after repeated pairing of the conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus, the conditioned stimuluswill begin to elicit the same response (unconditioned response), now called the conditioned response
compare and contrast the approaches taken by the behaviorists and the ethologists to the study of animal behavior. explain the rationale for each approach with an example
Pavlonian conditioning/operant learning
operant learning-the use of consequences to modify the occurance and form of a behavior
pavlonian conditioning-a neutral stimuls leads to a response as a result of being paired with another stimuls that already produces the response
excitation-an increase in neural activity following stimulation
inhibition-a process by which a neural activation is reduced following stimulation