BIOL141-test 3 -- c.18.txt

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dmk5154
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BIOL141-test 3 -- c.18.txt
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2012-04-02 09:32:14
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BIOL141 test 3 - c.18 Digestion
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  1. The digestive tract is considered _________ the body; it is open at both ends but some things never enter the body systems
    outside
  2. motility, secretion, digestion, absorption, storage and elimination, & immune barrier are all functions of ________
    the digestive system
  3. the entrance to the digestive system: _________
    mouth
  4. passageway for food (and air); plays a role in swallowing: ___________
    pharynx
  5. muscular tube that moves food from the pharynx to the stomach: ____________
    esophagus
  6. a "j-shaped" muscular sac, stores food, secretes gastric juices (HCl, pepsin) & begins protein digestion. (particularly aspirin and alcohol)
    stomach
  7. a long muscular tube that mixes food with bile and intestinal & pancreatic enzymes. MOST nutrients are digested and absorbed HERE!
    small intestine
  8. opening at the end of the system to expel feces
    anus
  9. muscular tube that absorbs water and some nutrients, it stores waste materials (feces)
    colon
  10. a blind? [sic] pouch at the junction of small and large intestines
    cecum
  11. region of large inestine that is the passageway of feces. The stretching of walls stimulates the defecation reflex
    rectum
  12. regulates defecation
    anal canal
  13. the salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, & pancreas are ________ structures to the digestive system
    accessory
  14. large organ the the abdominal cavity. secretes bile & emulsifies fats. Role in processing and storing certain nutrients
    liver
  15. gland located behind the stomach. secretes enzymes to digest all major nutrients, buffers that neutralize HCl, & release secretions into the small intestine
    pancreas
  16. three pairs of glands that secrete saliva. secretes enzyme amylase, which begins starch digestion.
    salivary glands
  17. a small sac, stores bile, & releases bil into small intestine
    gallbladder
  18. from the inside (lumen) out, order the layers of the digestive tract: submucosa, muscularis, serosa, mucosa
    mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, serosa
  19. the parasympathetic NS stimulates most of the digestive system through the ________ nerve. (lower large intestine stimulated by the spinal cord)
    vagus
  20. preganglionic neurons synapse in what layer of the digestive system?
    submucosa
  21. the ________ Nervous System inhibits peristalsis and secretion, & contracts sphincters
    sympathetic
  22. intrinsic sensory neurons in the gut wall act via the __________________ nervous system
    enteric
  23. salivary ________ begins starch digestion
    amylase
  24. _____ is the term for a soft mass of food, suitable for swallowing
    bolus
  25. The tongue functions to _________ food for chewing and swallowing
    position
  26. During swallowing the _________ covers the trachea, or windpipe, to prevent choking. "the swallowing reflex"
    epiglottis
  27. Mechanical digestion begins in the _____, while chemical digestion begins in the _____.
    mouth; mouth
  28. deglutition is also known as _____________ (it includes 25 pairs of muscles)
    swallowing
  29. the __________ controls swallowing
    brain stem
  30. bolus is moved down the esophagus to the stomach by movement called _______________
    peristalsis
  31. the _________ turns bolus into more managable chyme
    stomach
  32. the fundus, body, and pyloris are all regions of the ____________. This structure ends in the pyloric sphincter
    stomach
  33. the stomach is lined with folds called __________
    rugae
  34. without "intrinsic factor" secretion, the body would not be able to absorb __________
    vitamin B 12
  35. parietal cells within gastric pits in the stomach secrete ________ (regulated by PSNS), while chief cells secrete _________
    HCl (pH 2.0); pepsinogen
  36. Alcohol and aspirin are the only common substances to be absorbed in the stomach, due to _________________
    high lipid solubility
  37. treatment for ________ includes K/H pump inhibitors & antibiotics (due to Helicobacter pylori bacteria)
    peptic ulcers
  38. inflammation of the submucosa, caused by the acid eating at it is called __________
    gastritis
  39. The primary function of the stomach is to __________.
    store and digest food
  40. The substance present in stomach secretions that does the most damage in heartburn is _________
    HCl
  41. Which of the following functions in immunity in the digestive system? peristalsis, tounge, HCl, submucosa?
    HCl
  42. the duodenum, jejunum, and Ileum (DJI) make up the ___________ structure, where there are plenty of villi and microvilli
    small intestine
  43. the velvety appearance of villus and microvilli in the small intestine is called the __________
    brush border
  44. __________ cells in intestinal cyrpts secrete antibacterial molecules
    paneth
  45. the digestion of carbohydrates is finished in the ____________
    small intestine
  46. intestinal motility consists of ___________, rather than peristalsis
    segmentation
  47. interstitial cells of Cajal produce ____________: smooth muscule contractions controled automatically
    slow waves
  48. several hundred species of bacteria live in the ______________
    large intestine
  49. added vitamin K and B, fatty acids, absorbed electrolytes, & putting harmful bacteria out of business are benefits of _______ in the large intestine
    microbes /bacteria
  50. What is the primary role of the bacteria found in the large intestine?
    digest food and produce vitamins
  51. What is the primary role of the large intestine in digestion?
    Absorb ions, water, and vitamins to maintain homeostasis
  52. Which of the following gives the correct order of the organs that food passes through in the digestive system? --1--esophagus, epiglottis, stomach, liver, small intestine, large intestine, anus --2-- mouth, epiglottis, liver, stomach, pancreas, small intestine, large intestine, anus --3-- mouth, esophagus, stomach, gallbladder, pancreas, large intestine, small intestine, anus --4-- mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, anus
    --4--
  53. Which of the following is NOT a function of the liver? Aid in digestion by producing bile, Convert by-products of protein digestion to urea, Digest food as it passes through the liver on the way to the large intestine, Monitor glucose levels in the blood?
    Liver does NOT digest food
  54. Blood flows from the small intestine to the liver through the ____, then from the liver to the inferior vena cava through the _____.
    hepatic portal vein; hepatic vein
  55. Without bile, one would be unable to digest ____ completely
    Fat (i.e. french fries) Bile emulsifies fat!
  56. Gallstones often block the pancreatic duct, preventing the release of pancreatic enzymes into the duodenum. This would cause problems with the digestion of ________.
    carbs, fats, & proteins (All 3)
  57. People with ___________ have trouble secreting bicarbonate, which can lead to destruction of the pancreas
    cystic fibrosis (CF)
  58. True or false? Water-soluble nutrients are absorbed into the lacteals, whereas lipid-soluble nutrients are absorbed into the blood capillaries
    False, it is the other way around
  59. The primary function of the small intestine is to __________.
    digest and absorb nutrients
  60. What are the fingerlike projections along the surface of the small intestine called?
    villi
  61. Chemical digestion of proteins is confined to which combination of organs in the digestive system?
    stomach and small intestine
  62. digestion of proteins begins in the stomach, with _________ breaking it down
    pepsin
  63. a lacteal is a type of ____________ found in villi
    lymph vessel

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