Diabetes Mellitus type 2

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Author:
britsands
ID:
145221
Filename:
Diabetes Mellitus type 2
Updated:
2012-04-02 12:44:04
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Brittany
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Description:
tidbits of diabetes
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  1. Stable glucose range
    70-120
  2. What is the average daily secretion of insulin a day
    0.6units/kg
  3. Impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose aka
    Pre-diabetes
  4. Prediabetics
    IGT:
    • Fasting glucose higher than normal
    • (>100mg/dl, but <126 mg/dl)
  5. Prediabetics
    IFG
    • 2 hour plasma glucose higher than normal
    • between 140-199 mg/dl
  6. Risk factors diabetes
    • Race- american indian, african americans, eskimos
    • Age - 65+
    • Obesity
    • Family History
    • certian meds
    • hypertension
    • stress
    • inactivity
    • pregnancy
    • high cholesterol
  7. Main symptoms of diabetes
    • Polyuria
    • Polyphagia
    • Polydispsia
    • Weight gain
    • kussmaul breating (hyperventilation)
    • blurred vision
    • smell of acetone
    • N&V
    • Abdominal pain
    • Glycosuria
  8. Criteria for diagnosis
    Classic symptoms of diabetes and...
    Blood sugar >
    or
    Fasting blood glucose >
    or
    2hr plasma glucose> ___ during OGTT testing using glucose load 75G
    • Blood sugar >200mg/dl random
    • FBG >126
    • OGTT > 200
  9. Rebound effect in which an overdose of insulin causes hypoglycemia
    Usually during hours of sleep
    Counter regulatory hormones released
    Rebound hyperglycemia and ketosis occur
    Somogyi effect
  10. Characterized by hyperglycemia present on awakening in the morning
    due to relase of counter regulatory hormone in predawn hours
    growth hormone/ cortisol possible factors
    Dawn Phenomenon
  11. Medical management of diabetes mellitus
    • nsulin if unresponsive to diet therapy and oral agents
    • increase activity
    • decrease hypertension adn lipid levels and prevent heart attacks and strokes
    • Diet therapy (5-6 TIMES a day)
    • Stress management
    • Blood glucose monitoring before, after meals, or at night
  12. Main things that are complications of diabetes
    • Vision- retinopathy
    • Heart- arthersclerosis--> cardiomyopathy
    • Kidneys- nephropathy
  13. Signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia
    • Shaky, tachycardia
    • Coll and clammy skin, dizzy
    • Anxious, weakness
    • Headache
    • Hungrey
    • Blurred vision
    • Irritable, nervous
  14. S&S of hyperglycemia
    • Polyphagia
    • Headache, weakness
    • polydispsia
    • polyuria
    • dry hot skin
    • N&V
    • Blurry Vision
    • Kusmahls breathing
    • Dehydration
    • Fruity Breath
  15. If severe hypoglycemia what do you administer
    D50%- IV glucose
  16. What amount do you want for carbs a day
    • 45-65%
    • 130g a daay
  17. protien intake
    15-20%
  18. saturated fat
    Less that 7%
  19. HHNK
    bg-
    most prodominant in type
    what does it do?
    • BG->800
    • Serum osmolarity >350
    • Mostly in type 2
    • No kussmauls
    • Severe dehydration and electroylte changes (Low K, Na)
    • Hypotension, acute renal failure, hyperviscosity
    • seizures, coma, death
  20. Hyperglycemia: glucose usually >300mg/dl
    Ketonemia: total serum ketones >3
    Acidosis: blood ph <7.3 or HCO3->15
    rapid unpredicatable onset
    Diabetic ketoacidosis
  21. clinical symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis
    • polyuria
    • N&V
    • SOB
    • Fever
    • Polydipsia
    • Abdominal pain
    • CNS depression
    • Infection
  22. Diabetes complications heart
    • coronary artery disease
    • HTN
    • Poor circulation to legs and feet
  23. Complications of eyes\
    vision loss, glacoma, retinopathy
  24. complications for kidneys
    • renal insufficiency
    • and failure
  25. Complication brain/nerves
    • Stroke
    • Chronic pain
    • neropathy

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