accounting chapters 8-11.txt

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accounting chapters 8-11.txt
2012-04-03 17:08:38

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  1. prop fund statements
    • statement of net assets
    • statements of rev exp and changes in fund net assets
    • statement of cash flows
  2. Interest
    • Interest paid=financing activity
    • Interest received=investing activity
  3. Ramifications for other funds (for ISF)
    • Duplicate reported expenses
    • Transfer of depreciation to governmental funds
    • Detract from objectivity of financial statements (revs of ISF are not objective, and so too are changes in net assets for year, and expenditures of gen fund and any other funds; everything is subjective)
    • Obscure fund balance suprlus or deficits (gov transfer s or d to ISF, where not maintained).
  4. self-insurance
    when a gov self-insures, it retains the risk itself, irr of whether it accounts for the activity in ISF or gen fund. Therefore, self-ins=no insurance.
  5. The cash flows are divided into four categories:
    • operating activities;
    • noncapital financing activities;
    • capital and related financing activities;
    • investing activities.
  6. actuarial cost method
    means of allocating total cost of expected benefits over total years of employee service; method to etermine amount that they should contribute to pension plan each year;

    annual pensoin cost should be based mainly on annual required contribution (take into account interest on, and amortization of past deficiencies).
  7. minimum criteria for acceptabl annual req contribution
    • contirbution=normal cost + provision for amortizing plan's uaal
    • actuarial assumptions in accord with act stds board
    • actuarial value of plan assets must be market related
    • assumptions as to investment earnings rates and future inflation should be based on long-term projectiosn
  8. an uaal can result from
    • transition losses
    • changes in actuarial assumptions
    • improvements in pension benefits
    • special termination benefits
  9. reporting pension stuff
    gov wide stmts report only on net plan assets; pension plans should reprot their actuarial information in notes to the basic financial statements and supplementary schedules
  10. change between old method and new method?
    before new pronouncements, costs were on a pay as you go basis. thterefore, their unfunded obligation may be substantial.
  11. The decrease in plan assets is most likely attributable to
    an overall decline in stock prices
  12. 9: What criteria should be used to distinguish business from governmental activities?
    • FASB: Interest paid is operating. GASB: Interest paid
    • is financing.

    3 vs 4 categories
  13. What is the government amortizing?
    • The government would be amortizing the various deferrals – those resulting from changes in the terms of the plan,
    • changes in actuarial assumptions and in differences between actuarial assumptions and actual experience
  14. What has been the main criticism of the GASB standard on which the 30 year amortization period is based and what alternative has the GASB proposed?
    • This range is far too broad and the max number of years too great. Max period is far longer than remaining working lives of most employees.
    • GASB has proposed immediate write-offs of changes in the plan, amortizing changes in actuarial assumptions over
    • the remaining average service life
    • of employees and amortizing differences
    • between actual and projected investment returns over a period of five years.
  15. Current
    standards relating to the “discount rate” have been the subject of controversy
    and criticism. What is meant by the
    “discount rate” as it applies to pensions (i.e. what exactly is being
    discounted and why)?
    • The discount rate is the rate applied to the
    • future payments to beneficiaries to determine their present value and to compute the actuarially required contributions to the pension fund and the unfunded liability.

    • past:Estimated rate of return on
    • plan assets
    • current: A “blended” rate reflecting
    • the estimated rate of return on plan assets to the extent that plan assets areprojected to pay the required benefits and a tax-exempt municipal bond index
    • rate to the extent that they are not
  16. What is meant by a “cost sharing plan.” In what major will the GASB exposure draft alter current practice in the way
    members of a cost sharing plan account for their pension obligations
    • A cost sharing plan is one in which two or
    • more employers share the costs of:

    • ·
    • providing benefits and

    • ·
    • administering the plan and

    • ·
    • maintain a
    • common asset pool.

    • A single actuarial valuation is made for
    • all participating employer
  17. What meant by a defined contribution plan and how does it differ from a defined
    benefit plan?
    A defined contribution plan is one in which the employer specifies the contributions it will make to a retirement plan. In these plans, the employee bears the investment risk.

    • A defined benefit plan is
    • one in which the employer specifies the
    • benefits that an employee will receive as a retiree, typically expressed as
    • a percentage of the employee’s average compensation for 3-5 years. In these
    • plans, the employer bears the investment
    • risks
  18. Morgan City operates an electric utility which provides
    services to homes and businesses within the metropolitan area. Consider the following transactions made by
    the utility:

    When new customers first sign up for service,
    Hill requires them to put an amount on deposit equal to the estimated charges
    for one month’s service. If the customer
    pays their bills in a timely manner for 24 months, the deposit plus 2% interest
    is returned to them.

    The debt covenant on revenue bonds issued by the
    utility requires that $1M be set aside each year that the bonds are outstanding
    to provide for the retirement of the bonds.

    Discuss the treatment of these two items on the
    utility fund’s Statement of Net Assets.
    • Both of these items are examples of restricted
    • resources. They are treated the same on
    • the asset side: the amounts are
    • segregated from unrestricted assets and shown separately as restricted assets,
    • possibly with a description of the restriction.

    • The resources related to customer deposits are offset
    • by a liability payable from restricted assets”
    • Customer Deposits Payable. As
    • long as the restricted assets are completely offset by the related liability,
    • there is no need to restrict a portion of net assets.

    • The resources related to the bond covenant are not
    • explicitly offset by a liability and consequently a portion of net assets equal
    • to the amount set aside for repayment of principal must be shown as restricted.
  19. related organization
    voting majority of board, but no impose of will and no financial dependency
  20. affiliated organization
    • e.g. bookstore,
    • significant resources?
  21. diff b/w past and current:
    Measurement of assets in plan
    • past: market related
    • current: fair value
  22. diff b/w past and current:
    Amount to be reported as expense in
    government-wide statements
    • past:
    • Generally would be the
    • ARC (with an adjustment if the employer
    • has a net pension liability reported on its statement of net position)

    • current:
    • Changes in the employer’s
    • net pension liability (i.e., total actuarial liability less plan assets). Some of the changes are recognized
    • immediately; others can be recognized (amortized) over time
  23. diff b/w past and current:
    Amounts to be reported by a cost
    sharing employer as pension expense and liability
    • past: Report as an expense the
    • required contribution; report as liability only the cumulative difference
    • between required and actual contributions

    • current: Report as an expense
    • and liability its proportionate share of
    • the collective expense and liability
    • of all employers of the cost sharing plan
  24. normal cost
    portion of present value of plan benefits that is allocated to a particular year by an actuarial cost method