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2012-04-02 15:24:47
meat science

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  1. Stress is a general expression referring to ______ adjustments during exposure to adverse conditions
    physiological (heart rate, body temp, etc.)
  2. Stressors create a condition that occurs when environmental conditions cause a ______ response
  3. The animals homeostatic adjustments are aided by the release of _______ hormones.
  4. The pituitary gland releases ______ which stimulates the adrenal gland.
  5. The adrenal gland releases_______ and ___________.
    Corticoids and Epinephrines
  6. synthesis of carbohydrates; maintenance of cell response and ion balance
  7. maintenance of circulation; breakdown of glycogen and lipids
  8. stimulation of oxidative metabolism
    thyroid hormones
  9. Stress hormones are released to prepare muscle for emergency contractions that may be required by initiating the ________
    anaerobic pathway
  10. _______ builds up in the muscles when anaerobic metabolism is initiated
    lactic acid
  11. If quantities of lactic acid entering the blood stream are too great for the liver and heart to neutralize, death my occur due to
  12. In most animals, only time is needed to restore ______ levels to normal
  13. Animals can be classed by their reaction to stress
    stress susceptible, stress resistant
  14. pigs that are highly susceptible to stress and experience heat stroke, shock, and circulatory collapse
    Porcine Stress Syndrom
  15. Stress susceptible animals have unusually high ____, rapid _______, and early onset of _____.
    temperatures, glycolysis, ATP
  16. The rise in temperature, lactic acid buildup, and depletion of ATP results in
    protein denaturation
  17. DFD
    dark firm dry
  18. DFD results if animals survive a stress significant enough to deplete their
    glycogen reserves
  19. Stress ____ animals can maintain normal muscle conditions when exposed to severe stress
  20. Stress resistant animals maintain normal muscle conditions, but it is at the expense of ______ ______ and results in limited _______ postmortem
    muscle glycogen, glycolysis
  21. Normal glycogen % at death and final pH
    1.0% and 5.6
  22. Glycogen at death and pH for DFD
    0.3% and 6.0 - 6.5
  23. Glycogen at death and pH for PSE
    0.6% and 5.1
  24. Heritability estimates for some physical properties of meat show that major improvements can be made by selecting animals with
    normal color, moderate firmness, optimum intramuscular fat, and low resistance to shear force
  25. Halothane gene
    Pork - altered calcium channel in SR; accellerates postmortem metabolism
  26. Rendement Napole gene
    Altered AMP kinase (regulates glycolysis)
  27. Halothane and Rendement Napole genes result in
  28. AMP is common in
  29. The color of the lean becomes _______ as the animal ages
  30. ________ matures causing decreased tenderness
    Connective tissue
  31. Maturation of connective tissue is substantial in cattle at ___ months of age
  32. Meat flavor intensity _____ with age
  33. A likely cause of meat flavor intensity
    increase of nucleotides which degrade to inosinic acid and hypoxanthine
  34. Certain muscles that are free to shorten during rigor lack
  35. lack of _______ structure results in loss of tenderness
    skeletal structure
  36. _________ and ________ influence sarcomere length, which influences meat tenderness
    prerigor temperature and skeletal tension
  37. Unacceptable meat is mostly associated with ______ males.
  38. Onion-like or perspiratory odor
    boar taint
  39. Boar taint chemical
    5-androst-16ene-3one, skatole
  40. _____ is important from a nutritional deficiency standpoint
  41. Vitamin ___ is an antioxidant
  42. Forage diets high in ______ result in yellow fat
    beta carotene
  43. Some pre-slaughter stresses
    sorting, loading, transportation, weighing, water spraying, immobilization
  44. pre-slaughter handling can result in
    PSE, DFD, or bruising
  45. Carcass storage temperature can affect
    rate of chemical reactions in muscle tissue
  46. Best to reduce temperature after death
    as quickly as possible
  47. Chilling a carcass too rapidly can result in
    Thaw rigor and cold shortening
  48. type of rigor that develops when muscle frozen prerigor is thawed
    thaw rigor
  49. What happens during thaw rigor
    Calcium is suddenly released and muscle contracts causing 60 - 80% shortening
  50. Cold shortening occurs when muscle is chilled below ______*C before onset of rigor
    15 - 16
  51. Cold shortening is caused by________
    release of calcium or the failure of the calcium pump
  52. Cold shortening is more severe in
    unrestrained or superficial muscle
  53. Cold shortening can be prevented with
    excess fat
  54. early onset of rigor can be induced by maintaining muscle at high temperatures ______
    above 37 *C
  55. Heat rigor results in the rapid depletion of _____ stores
  56. Electrical stimulation is used for
    turkeys, lamb, beef, and veal
  57. ES improves
    • 1.tenderness
    • 2. color of lean
    • 3. quality grade
    • 4. flavor
    • 5. more visible marbling
  58. ES prevents
    heat rings
  59. ES shortens the
    aging period
  60. ES extends the
    caselife of meat
  61. ES accelerates
    ATP depletion and onset of rigor
  62. Fresh meat is defined as
    minimally processed
  63. Properties of Fresh meat
    usefulness to merchandiser, appeal to purchaser, and adaptability for further processing
  64. Fresh meat must first _____ and meet visual expectations for ________
    look good, tasting good
  65. ______ and _______ affect visual preference
    color and texture
  66. _____, _____, _______, and ________ affect taste preference
    aroma, tenderness, juiciness, and flavor
  67. Processors place varied emphasis on
    WHC, color, structure, firmness, and texture
  68. Define water holding capacity
    the ability of meat to retain naturally occuring or added water during application of external forces such as cutting, heating, or grinding
  69. WHC has a direct effect on
  70. _____ is highly evident in vacuum packaged meat where the moisture is trapped in the bag
  71. High _____ level are usually indicative of further _____ of juices during cooking, resulting in dry tough meat
    purge, loss
  72. Water can be classified as
    bound, immobilized, and free
  73. Conditions that have a big impact on muscle proteins' ability to bind with water
    Lactic acid, loss of ATP, onset of rigor, and changes in cell structure due to proteolytic enzyme activity
  74. Lactic acid effects on WHC
    drops pH and reduces the number of reactive groups on proteins available for binding water
  75. isoelectric point is
    when positive and negative charged groups are equal
  76. Net charge only accounts for ____ loss of WHC
  77. Lack of space within the protein for water to bind is known as the
    stearic effect
  78. Stearic effect accounts for the remaining ____ of loss of WHC
  79. Stearic effect results when
    protein interactions associated with actomyosin form a tight network within contractile proteins
  80. Divalent _______ neutralize two _______ charged reactive groups resulting in no repulsion forces
    cations (Ca++ and Mg++), negatively
  81. Meat color is measured using
    Hue, Chroma, and Value
  82. Hue is the amount of
    yellow, green, red, or blue
  83. Chroma is
    purity or saturation; intensity
  84. Value is
    brightness; overall light reflectance
  85. Pigments absorb certain _____ of light and _____ others giving meat its coloe
    wavelengths, reflect
  86. Meat color is influenced by
    viewing conditions (certain light)
  87. Structure and texture of muscles influence
    reflection and absorption
  88. ______ _______ change net charge and drastically increase water holding capacity
    Alkaline Phosphates
  89. Factors influencing meat color (9)
    • Species, age, sex
    • Temperature
    • meat quality and pH
    • Muscle differences (activity and fiber type)
    • Postmortem age of meat
    • ground vs. whole muscle
    • oxygen & other atmospheres
    • packaging
    • muscle chemistry
  90. Minor enzymes for meat color are
    Calalase and Cytochrome
  91. 4x larger than myoglobin; limited in meat because of exsanguinations
  92. ________ consists of globular protein and a non-protein portion called the _____ _____
    myoglobin, heme ring
  93. ________ state of heme ring is partially responsible for meat color
  94. Heme is always associated with _____
  95. Oxidized myoglobin contains
    Fe3+ ferric iron
  96. Reduced myoglobin contains
    Fe2+ ferrous iron
  97. When reduced, ferrous myoglobin readily binds with
    water, nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, or oxygen
  98. Reducing conditions result naturally due to
    enzyme activity (electron transport chain)
  99. Enzymes use _____ in the interior of the muscle long after death
  100. When ____ and ______ increase, it results in increased ______ activity
    pH and temperature, enzyme
  101. Maintaining meat near______ point minimizes enzyme activity and oxygen consumption
  102. In uncut meat, only ____ is present to bind to meat.
    This state of myoglobin is called ______.
    water, deoxymyoglobin
  103. Development of oxymyoglobin when meat is exposed to air is called
  104. If the iron portion becomes oxidized, the state of myoglobin is typically called
  105. Fe++ bound to H20
    reduced myoglobin
  106. Fe++ bound to O2
  107. Fe++ bound to NO
    Nitric oxide myoglobin (cure pink)
  108. Fe++ bound to CO
  109. Fe+++ bound to CN
    (red) cyanmetmyoglobin
  110. Fe+++ bound to OH
    brown - metmyoglobin
  111. Fe+++ bound to SH
    green - sulfmyoglobin
  112. Fe+++ bound to H2O2
    green - Choleglobin
  113. _______ can be reduced both anaerobically and aerobically by surviving enzymes of the cytochrome system and with ________ as a coenzyme
    metmyoglobin, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)
  114. Production of metmyoglobin from myoglobin or oxymyoglobin is accelerated by all conditions that denature the globin ______
    moiety (functional group)
  115. Stability of _________ depends on a continuing supply of oxygen since the enzymes involved in oxidative metabolism rapidly use the oxygen available
  116. ______ is a palatability trait that has the greatest influence on consumer satisfaction
  117. Actomyosin effect on tenderness
    sarcomere length
  118. background effect on tenderness
    connective tissue
  119. bulk density/_______ effect
  120. titin
    thick filaments
  121. desmin
  122. nebulin
    thin filaments
  123. venculin & dystrofin
  124. background effect can be measured by
    • stromal protein concentration
    • size of elastin fibrils
    • solubility of collagen
  125. bulk density/lubricatino is estimated by
    • amount of marbling
    • distribution of marbling
  126. Age and hormones have an effect on connective tissue by
    cross linkages and solubility
  127. The amount of connective tissue depends on
    if the muscle is used for support or locomotion
  128. sarcomere characteristics affecting tenderness
    length, diameter, fragment
  129. Sarcomere length: 3.6 microns
  130. sarcomere length: 1.6 microns
  131. fiber diameter 40 microns
  132. fiber diameter 80 microns
  133. 6 sarcomere fragments
  134. 12 sarcomere fragments
  135. When there is more marbling, the meat is ______ dense
  136. Bos indicus tend to have higher levels of
  137. Muscles used for locomotion have higher
    connective tissue levels
  138. Degree of doneness effects
    meat tenderness
  139. Age at slaughter affects
  140. Diet has an effect on
  141. 3 methods to improve meat tenderness
    • Cause sarcomere to be longer
    • Disrupt integrity of myofibrils
    • disrupt integrity of connective tissue
  142. Prevent cold shortening by
    accelerated glycolysis or slower chill rate
  143. lengthen sarcomeres by
    • preventing cold shortening - more subcutaneous fat
    • high temps pre-rigor
    • electrical stimulation - disrupts myofibrils
  144. Caplains are located in ______ and affect the ______
    Cytosol, Z-lines
  145. Cathespsins are located in the _______ and affect _______
    lysosomes, actin/myosin
  146. Calpastatin is located in the ______ and ________
    cytosol, inhibits calpains
  147. Cooler aging
    1 - 6 weeks at 0 - 3 *C
  148. High temp - post rigor
    20 *C for 24 hrs
  149. High temp - pre-rigor
    16 *C for 16 hrs
  150. Electrical stimulation
    disrupts lysosome
  151. ______ infusion pre and post rigor
  152. Examples of exogenous enzymes
    Tropical plant enzymes - Papain (papaya), Brometin (pineapple), Ficin (figs)
  153. Way to sever myofibrils
    ES, blade tenderization, mechanical severance, hydrodyne
  154. Ways to disrupt connective tissue
    Marination with salt and vinegar - water soln with 2% NaCl and acetic acid

    • Rhozyme - fungal enzyme - aspergillus oryzae
    • Tropical plant enzymes
  155. Severance/disruption of stromal proteins
    • Blade
    • Mechanical
    • Collagen - gelatin (moist heat)
    • Cooler aging
  156. define evaluate
    to judge or determine the worth or quality of; appraise
  157. Define grade
    a degree or rating in a scale classifying according to quality, rank, worth, etc.
  158. Define Grading
    to arrange or classify by grades; rate according to quality, rank, worth, etc; sort
  159. Carcass grades
    group carcasses of similar market desirability based on relative palatability and/or cutability
  160. slaughter animal grades
    group livestock of siilar market desirability based on predictions of the kind of carcass they will produce
  161. What is the purpose of grading
    facilitate market conditions and to allow transactions to be made on a sight unseen basis

    • Sorts carcasses within sex class based on relative value
    • Sorts carcasses from a heterogenous population into homogenous groups
  162. Grades define _______ for a specific ________
    acceptability, purpose
  163. What are the two types of Grades
    Grades that predict palatability and grades that predict cutability
  164. Palatability grading system that implies acceptable vs. unacceptable quality
    Bipartitie or Dichotomous - pork
  165. Palatability grading system that is graded or ranked in a series
  166. Hierarchy implies
    grade and % risk of toughness, dryness, bland/intense flavor
  167. Pork grades
    • U.S. (1-4) implies acceptable
    • U.S. Utility implies unacceptable
    • revised 1985
  168. Beef grading system
    hierarchy - 8 separate grades - revised 1997
  169. What is directed marketing?
    Groups sent to specific markets according to intended use
  170. Grades 1 &2
    Elite consumers - hotel, restaurant trade
  171. Grades 3 & 4
    groups for retail consumers with different preferences for tenderness, flavor, and cutability
  172. Grades 5-8
    Groups for use in ground, comminuted, or prepared beef items
  173. As age increases, flavor _______ and tenderness _________.
    increases, decreases
  174. Age of carcass is measured by
    color of lean, texture of lean; shape, color, and ossification of bone
  175. As fatness increases, flavor _______ and tenderness _______.
    increases, increases
  176. Lamb Quality grades
    • Prime
    • Choice
    • Good
    • Utility
    • Cull
    • revised 1992
  177. Cutabiliy grades for pork
    Bone-in, skin on, closely trimmed four lean cuts - ham, loin, boston butt, picnic shoulder
  178. Beef cutability grades
    Boneless, closely trimmed retail cuts from the round, loin, rib, and chuck
  179. Lamb cutability grades
    Semi-boneless, closely trimmed retail cuts from the leg, loin, rack, and shoulder
  180. USDA yield grades
    • Pork No. 1-4 best-worst
    • Beef 1-5 best-worst
    • Lamb 1-5 best-worst
  181. Meat Grading Service
    • Application of quality and yield grades
    • Acceptance - certification of fabricated products or brands
  182. USDA
    -Agriculture Marketing Service
    ____ and ______ Program
    ________ Branch
    ______ _______ and Certification Branch
    • Livestock, Seed
    • Standardization
    • Meat Grading
  183. Meat grading (is/is not) synonymous with Meat Grading
    is not
  184. All meat sold must be _________ by law, but ________ is optional
    Inspected, grading
  185. Meat inspection is funded by
    tax dollars
  186. Meat grading is funded by
    meat packers and processors
  187. Meat must _________ ________ before it can be graded
    pass inspection
  188. What is drift?
    live weights are decreased by 4% to account for live weight shrink (feces, urine, tissue)
  189. What is pay weight
    resulting weight minus the drift
  190. Dressing is
    steps needed to remove all of the drop items, leaving the hot carcass on the rail
  191. What affects dressing %?
    • Fill - largest effect
    • Fatness - increased fatness, higher DP
    • Muscling
    • Hide weight/thickness - decreased DP
    • mud on hides - decreased DP
    • bruises
    • trimming
  192. What is drop?
    everything from the animal except the carcass
  193. Average cooler shrink
  194. If spray chilling isn't used, cooler shrink will be about
  195. During fabrication there is a ____% breaking loss
  196. Breaking loss is
    bone and meat sawdust
  197. Carcass cost basis
    Carcass cost basis= live animal price per hundred pounds (cwt)/ dressing percentage (expressed as decimal)
  198. Retail cut cost basis
    carcass cost basis / red meat yield %