Microbiology

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Anonymous
ID:
14528
Filename:
Microbiology
Updated:
2010-04-14 19:10:17
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Chpt
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Description:
Nervous Systm Infection
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  1. Peripheral Nervous system diseases
    • Botulism
    • Tetanus
    • Leprosy
    • Polio
    • Herpese Simplex, Varicella
  2. Central Nervous System Infections
    • Meningitis-meninges
    • Encephalitits- brain tissue
    • Myelitits- Spinal cord
  3. Clostridium botulinum
    • G+ Rod, obligate anaerobe in soil
    • Endospores on veggie roots ingested
    • Secrete AB Exotoxin- Neurotoxin
    • Blocks acetylcholine transmision in synapse
    • Botulism is disease BOTOX is medical
  4. Botulism Effects
    • Ab neurrotoxin blocks acetylcholine transmission
    • Causes flaccid paralysis
    • Respiratory failure and death
  5. Botulism Treatment
    • Supportive care- ventilator
    • antitoxin/ antibodies bind neurotoxin
    • ANTIBIOTICS DO NOTHING
    • There are several outbreaks yearly from peppers and onions
  6. Clostridium tetani
    • G+ obligate anaerobe in soil
    • Endospores grown in wounds and punctures
    • Secrete AB exotoxing- tetanospasmin
    • Blocks peripheral nerve relaxation pathways
    • Symptom: muscle contraction and spasm
    • Disease: spastic paraysis leaves body arched Spinal muscles stronger than abdominal
  7. Tetanus Symptoms
    • Lockjaw- mouth cannot open
    • Opisthotonos- extreme contraction
    • Death from respiratory spasm
    • 50 US cases a year, elderly
  8. Tetanus Treatment/Prevention
    • Treated with antitoxin that binds antibodies to toxin
    • Vaccine contains inactivated toxin
    • Boosters needed every 10 years
    • 50% of adult population has inadequate antibodies
  9. Mycobacterium leprae
    • G+ acid fast rod identified in 1870
    • Grows in peripheral nerves & skin cells
    • Leprosy- Hansens disease
    • Lepromatous- progressive form cool parts of body (nose hands)
    • Tuberculoid- neural form- loss of sensation
    • India, Brazil, Nepal, Mozambique, Angola, Myanmar
  10. Human Herpes Virus
    • Varicella Virus
    • Chicken pox is initial infection
    • Shingles is reactivated virus
  11. CNS Portals of Entry
    • Hematologous spread- most common
    • Across blood brain barrier, from capillaries to CSF, between epithelial cells
    • Skull or vertebra fracture Staph. sp.
    • Through cibriform foramina- ameobas
    • Along peripheral nerves- Rabies HSV
  12. CNS Pathogens
    • Meningitis
    • Encephalitis
    • Vassculare Occlusion
    • Granulomas
    • Abscesses
    • Cysts
  13. CNS pathogen Testing
    • CT scan assess for tumors, abcesses and cysts
    • Lumbar puncture for CSF test
    • Gram, Capsule and acid fast
    • Low glucose- suggests bacterai
    • Neutrophils- sugests bacteria
    • Lymphocytes- suggests virus
    • Serology-syphillis, hiv, lyme
  14. Bacterial Meningitis
    • Fevere, headache, stiff neck, nausea, vomitting
    • Rapid progression to convulsions and coma
    • Most common - Acute
    • Haemophilus influenzae
    • Streptococcus pneumoniae
    • Neisseria meningitidis
    • Uncommon: G- rods, Listeria Spp. M. tuberculosis
  15. Haemophilus influenza Type B
    • G- aerobic w/ capsule
    • Normal nasopharyngeal flora
    • Meningitis in chilren younger than 4. 6% mortality
    • Otis media, epigolttis and pneumonia
    • HIB vaccine capsule antigenic conjugated with protein
  16. Neisseria Meningitidis
    • Meningococcal meningitis
    • G- aerobic cocci with capsule
    • 10% people carry, College and military vaccinated
    • From soar throat to deat in few hours
    • Mortality-80% w/ out treatment, 12% w/ treatment
    • Rapiid Endotoxin damage
  17. Streptococcus pneumoniae
    • G+ diplococci pneumococcus
    • 70% people carry
    • ottis media and pneumonia
    • Children under 4 most common
    • 30% mortality meningitidis in kids. 80% elderly
    • Vaccine: subunits from 7 strains- under 24mnths, continually ill elderly
  18. Cryptococcus neoformans
    • Fungus with very thick capsule
    • Identified by CSF indida ink stain
    • Pigeon shit inhaled
    • Mild lung infection
    • Meningitis mortality up to 30%
    • Treated: Amphotericin B
  19. Viral Meningitis
    • Aseptic meningitis- no growth in culture
    • Elevated lymphocytes in CSF
    • Cannot be cultured by normal techniques
    • Non-polio enterovirus meningitis mild self limited
    • Herpes meningitis SEVERE
    • hematologous, cranial nerves, acyclovir crucial
  20. Poliomyelitis
    • Fecal diarrhea- oral spread of 3 enterovirus strains
    • 1% infections hematologous spread
    • Destroy spinal cord motor horns- gray matter
    • Flaccid paralysis- limbs and respiratory
    • 1984-"Infantile paralysis"
    • 1979- last us wild case
    • 2009-still; endemic in India, Pakistan, Nigeria and Afghanistan
  21. US Rabies
    • Most us mammal pets are vaccinated
    • Wild Mammals-never in squirrels
    • Furious- animals restless and excitable
    • Paralytic- animals are docile
    • Vaccine-killed virus certain scientists vets, rangers
  22. Prions
    • Ingestion, transplant inherited
    • Years to decades to incubate-Chronic and fatal
    • Sheep Scrapie- England scrap themselves to death
    • Familal Fatal Insomnia- Italian Family
    • Bovin spongiform encephalopathy- Mad cow disease
    • Kuru-human- Pacific islands
    • Creutzfeld Jacob disease
  23. African Trypanosmas Encephalitis
    • Sleeping sickness
    • Protozoa transmitted by tstse fly
    • Gambiense- "milder chronice" human only host
    • Rhodesiense- acute, lethal, cattle and human
    • No effective medication due to rapidly evolving protein coat
  24. Rabies Diagnostic Test
    • 1903- Direct observation of Negri body in neuron cell
    • Rabies antibodies in serum and CSF
    • Anitgen tesitng byu direct fluroescent of cerebellum and brain stem
    • Polymerase Chain Reaction- RNA in saliva and neck nape skin biopsy of nerver aroudn hair root
  25. Rabies Encephalitis
    • Virus travels 1cm a day along peripheral nerves in cns
    • 1 month to 1 year until encephalitits
    • Autonomic instability- fever sweating foaming saliva, delirium,
    • hydrophobia (afraid to swallow
    • 47 US cases since 1990 1 survivor
    • Postexposure Prophylaxis- 40,000 per year
  26. Arbovirus Encephalitis
    • WEE- severe residual nerological damage (birds, horses) Culex
    • EEE- 30% mortality (birds, horses) Aedes & culiseta
    • St. Louis- Urban 20% mortality (birds) culex
    • California- small mammals- aedes
    • West Nile- mild to severe 20% mortality (birds , mammals) Both

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