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What are the apomorphies of Bilateria?
- Bilateral symmetry
- Distinct dorsal and ventral surfaces
- Nervous concentration at anterior end
- Filtration excretory organs
What are the apomorphies of Deuterostomie?
- Enterocoely: process by which embryos develop in which a coelom is formed by pouches pinched off the digestive tract
- Blastopore becomes anus
- Endodermal suspecion-feeding pharynx with gill slits
- Lecithotrophic larva
What are the apomorphies of Ambulacraria?
Planktotrophic larva with circumoral ciliary band
What are the apomorphies of Echinodermata?
- Pentamerous symmetry
- Water-vascular system
- Multiple connective tissues
- Loss of gill slits
What are the apomorphies of Crinoidea?
- Body divided into crown and stem
- Ams with pinnules
- Ring canal bears many stone canals
- Heart, kidney absent
What are the apomorphies of Eleutherozoa?
- Motile lifestye
- Oral surface faces substratum
- Locomotory tube feet
- Madreporite: controls entry of seawater
- Polian vesicles on the ring canal
- Movable spines
What are the apomorphies of Asteroidea?
- Eye spot at each arm tip
- Paired pyloric cecum in each arm
- Gastric hemal tufts
- Gonads in arms
- Bipinnaria larva
What are the apomorphies o Crystosyringida?
Radial nerves are internalized in the epineural canal
What are the apomorphies of Echinozoa?
- Oral surface and ambulacra expanded aborally to cover most of the body
- Ossicles form ring around th pharynx
- Ossicles in tube feet
- Suckered tube feet
- Well-developed hemal system with rete mirabile
What are the apomorphies of Ophiuruoidea?
- Arms sharply set off from disc
- Oral madreporite
- Veritbral ossicles in arms
- Arm-plate ossicles (tiny bones, skeleton armor)
- Ophiopluteus larva
What are the apomorphies of Echinoidea?
- Test of fused ossicles
- Two skeletal pores for each tube foot
- Periproct has 10 ossicles (surrounds anus)
- Aristotles Lantern
- Polian vesicles lost
- Echinopluteus larva
What are the apomorphies of Holothuroidea?
- Minute ossicles in thick dermis
- Body wall musculature in 5 longitudinal bands
- Microphagus, retractable buccal podia
- Respiratory trees
What are the apomorphies of Hemichordata?
- Doral and ventral longitudinal nerve cords
- Stomochord antagonizes contractile pericardium
- Valved collar ducts
- Muscular locomotory-secretory protosome<
What are the apomorpies of Chorata?
- Dorsal hollow nerve cord with open anterior neuropore
- Notocord: flexible rod, supports back
- Pharynx with endostyle
- Ventral postoral heart
- Cross-striated longitudinal muscles for swimming
What are the apomorphies of Tunicata?
- Buccal tentacles
- Heatbeat reversal
- Neural gland ventral to the cerebral ganglion
- Pyloric gland
- Tubular notorcord with extracellular lumen
- Bilateral cleavage
- Determinate development
Whatare the apomorphies of Metameria?
What are the apomorphies of Cephalochordata?
- Muscular notorcord extends into rostrum
- Staggered myomeres
- Asymmetric planktotrophic larva
What are the apomorphies of Vertebrata?
- Stratified epithelia
- Blood vessels have endothelia
- Hemocytes with hemoglobin
- Glomerular metanephridial system
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