Lab 8

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  1. What are the apomorphies of Bilateria?
    • Bilateral symmetry
    • Distinct dorsal and ventral surfaces
    • Nervous concentration at anterior end
    • Filtration excretory organs
  2. What are the apomorphies of Deuterostomie?
    • Enterocoely: process by which embryos develop in which a coelom is formed by pouches pinched off the digestive tract
    • Blastopore becomes anus
    • Endodermal suspecion-feeding pharynx with gill slits
    • Lecithotrophic larva
  3. What are the apomorphies of Ambulacraria?
    Planktotrophic larva with circumoral ciliary band
  4. What are the apomorphies of Echinodermata?
    • Pentamerous symmetry
    • Water-vascular system
    • Multiple connective tissues
    • Loss of gill slits
  5. What are the apomorphies of Crinoidea?
    • Body divided into crown and stem
    • Ams with pinnules
    • Ring canal bears many stone canals
    • Heart, kidney absent
  6. What are the apomorphies of Eleutherozoa?
    • Motile lifestye
    • Oral surface faces substratum
    • Locomotory tube feet
    • Madreporite: controls entry of seawater
    • Polian vesicles on the ring canal
    • Movable spines
  7. What are the apomorphies of Asteroidea?
    • Eye spot at each arm tip
    • Paired pyloric cecum in each arm
    • Gastric hemal tufts
    • Gonads in arms
    • Bipinnaria larva
  8. What are the apomorphies o Crystosyringida?
    Radial nerves are internalized in the epineural canal
  9. What are the apomorphies of Echinozoa?
    • Oral surface and ambulacra expanded aborally to cover most of the body
    • Ossicles form ring around th pharynx
    • Ossicles in tube feet
    • Suckered tube feet
    • Well-developed hemal system with rete mirabile
  10. What are the apomorphies of Ophiuruoidea?
    • Arms sharply set off from disc
    • Oral madreporite
    • Veritbral ossicles in arms
    • Arm-plate ossicles (tiny bones, skeleton armor)
    • Ophiopluteus larva
  11. What are the apomorphies of Echinoidea?
    • Test of fused ossicles
    • Two skeletal pores for each tube foot
    • Periproct has 10 ossicles (surrounds anus)
    • Aristotles Lantern
    • Polian vesicles lost
    • Echinopluteus larva
  12. What are the apomorphies of Holothuroidea?
    • Minute ossicles in thick dermis
    • Body wall musculature in 5 longitudinal bands
    • Microphagus, retractable buccal podia
    • Respiratory trees
  13. What are the apomorphies of Hemichordata?
    • Doral and ventral longitudinal nerve cords
    • Stomochord antagonizes contractile pericardium
    • Valved collar ducts
    • Muscular locomotory-secretory protosome<
  14. What are the apomorpies of Chorata?
    • Dorsal hollow nerve cord with open anterior neuropore
    • Notocord: flexible rod, supports back
    • Pharynx with endostyle
    • Ventral postoral heart
    • Fins
    • Cross-striated longitudinal muscles for swimming
  15. What are the apomorphies of Tunicata?
    • Tunic
    • Buccal tentacles
    • Heatbeat reversal
    • Neural gland ventral to the cerebral ganglion
    • Pyloric gland
    • Hermaphroditic
    • Tubular notorcord with extracellular lumen
    • Bilateral cleavage
    • Determinate development
  16. Whatare the apomorphies of Metameria?
  17. What are the apomorphies of Cephalochordata?
    • Muscular notorcord extends into rostrum
    • Myoglobin
    • Staggered myomeres
    • Crytopodocytes
    • Asymmetric planktotrophic larva
  18. What are the apomorphies of Vertebrata?
    • Stratified epithelia
    • Blood vessels have endothelia
    • Hemocytes with hemoglobin
    • Glomerular metanephridial system
Card Set:
Lab 8
2012-04-02 19:48:05

Echinoderma, Hemichordata, Chordata
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