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What are the apomorphies of Brachiopoda?
- Bivalve shell and mantle
- Brachia: two arms, filters sea water
- Digestive ceca: pouches in stomach, help digest food
What are the apomorphies of Mollusca?
- Dorsal mantle has secreted chitin-protein cuticle and calcareous spicules - needle-like structes, make up skeleton
- Radula: tiny teeth, used to scrape food off surface
- Foot and paired peda retractor muscles
- Bipectinate gills
- Teraneural nervous system
- Foot for locomotion and food aquisition
What are the apomorphies of Polyplacophora?
- Eight dorsal, overlapping valves
- Valves consist of tegmentum and articulamentum
What are the apomorphies of Ganglioneura?
- Neuron cell bodies concentrated in paired ganglia
- Single pair of foot retractor muscles
What are the apomorphies of Gastropoda?
- Torsion: rotation of visceral muscles
- Usually coiled, asymmetrical
- Mantle cavity is anterior
- Streptoneurous nervour system
- Left gonad lost
What are the apomorphies of Cephalopoda?
- Pelagic: inhabits the open sea
- Chambered shell
- Hydrostatic organ
- Carnivorous with beaks, tentacles
- Extreme cephalization
- Camera-style eyes
- Muscular mantle for ventilation and swimming
- Crystalline style lost
- Macrolethical eggs with discoid cleavage
What are the apomorphies of Bivalvia?
- Bivalve shell joined by a dorsal movable hinge
- Adductor muscles
- Radula lost
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