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- unplanned, low-density housing and commercial development outside of cities on previously undeveloped land
- Characteristic: not planned out very well
3 types of urban sprawl
- Ribbon Sprawl- Random strip of 1 road with tons of stuff on it and nothing on either side
- Wealthy Suburbs- big houses
- Tract development-houses close together
causes of urban sprawl
- biggest one is incentive: ppl want to get out of the city
- public investments and infrastructure
- tax and utility rate policies
factors that contribute to urban sprawl
- lifestyle: our quality of life is affected (increase dependancy on cars, less community, etc)
- Economy: public costs for infrastructure, reduce ability to finance public services, job relocation etc
- Planning and Policy: fragmentation of open space, loss of farmland, biggest is zoning
- zoning: political jurisdiction over land
effects of unplanned urban growth
- traffic issues
- low energy efficiency
- air pollution
- loss of open space
- loss of community
- increased cost of infrastructure
- water pollution
- establishing state or regional planning agencies
- purchasing land or use rights
- regulating use
EPA definition of wastes
Hazardous wastes: by-products of industrial, business, or household activities for which there is no immediate use. Require appropriate disposal, Stringent regulations pertaining to production, storage, and disposal.
Solid waste: objects that accumulate on the site where they are produced, as opposed to waterborne or airborne wastes that are carried away
Lead poisoning identification and reparation
Observe, orient, decide, act
Legislative(creates bills) executive(enforces policy), judicial (interprets bills)
- Set of institutions we associate with political authority
- National laws and regulations Property recognition (recognize who’s property is who’s)
- Environmental protection International cooperation *
- Exercise of authority and decision-making (your own decisions)
- Oversight and advisory groups
- Non-governmental organizations
- Actual management practices
- Actions as consumers
Primary Air Pollutants
- – substances released directly into atmosphere in unmodified forms and pose a health risk
- 1. CO
- 2. VOCs
- 3. PMs
- 4. SO2
- 5. NOx
Secondary Air Pollutants
Substances formed from interaction of 1o pollutants with oxygen and water (i.e., smog, O3)
April 22, 1970* first earth day
- Absorbs UV light and is split into an oxygen molecule and an oxygen atom
- O3--->O2 + O (with UV light)
- Oxygen molecules are split by UV light to form oxygen atoms
- O2----> 2O (with UV light)
- Oxygen atoms and molecules recombine to form ozone
- O2 +O---> O3
Point vs. Non-point source pollution
- Point source - source of pollution readily located and identified.
- Municipal and industrial waste discharge pipes.
- Nonpoint source - more difficult to identify and control.
- Diffuse pollutants from agricultural land and urban paved surfaces come from nonpoint sources.Acid rain
- The EPA promotes a“P2” hierarchy:
- 1. Reduce pollution at its source
- 2. Recycle
- 3. Treat wastes to reduce their hazard or volume
- 4. Dispose on land or incinerate
- Natural Vs. Synthetic Insecticides
- Chlorinated Hydrocarbons
- Persistent – Don’t break down easily, but needs application at long time intervals
- Banned in U.S.
- Organophosphates and Carbamates
- Non-persistent – Degrades within a few hours; requires many applications per year
Greenhouse gases and the Greenhouse Effect
- Thermosphere- Layer of increasing temperature
- Not protected from Sun
- Mesosphere- Layer of decreasing temperature
- Stratosphere- Contains most of the ozone in the atmosphere (absorbs ultraviolet light)
- Troposphere- Contains most of the water vapor in the atmosphere
Does the chemical remain in the environment for a long time
Municipal wastewater treatment
- Primary sewage treatment removes large particles via filtration and then pumps remaining water into settling ponds and lakes.
- Tertiary sewage treatment is a biological process that usually follows secondary treatment.
- Secondary sewage treatment is a biological process that usually follows primary treatment.In a trickling filtering system, wastewater is sprayed over a surface of rock or other substrate to increase the amount of dissolved oxygen
2007 IPCC report
- Climate Change 2007 Assessment Report (IPCC) concluded that:
- 1. Average temperature of Earth has increased in the past 100 years.
- 2. A strong correlation exists between temperature increase and greenhouse gas concentrations.
- 3. Human activity has greatly increased the amounts of these gases
The Clean Water Act (1972)
- seeks to protect U.S. waters from pollution.- regulates pollutant discharges into water by implementing two concepts
- :a. Setting water quality standards for surface water.
- b. Limiting effluent discharges into the water.
Water Quality Act (1987)
requires that municipalities obtain permits for discharges of storm water runoff so that nonpoint pollution sources are controlled
- Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act
- Develop programs to set cleaning priorities
- Make responsible parties pay for cleanups
- Set up Hazardous Waste Trust Fund to ID and clean abandoned hazardous waste sites
- Advance capabilities in management, treatment, and disposal of hazardous wastes
Basel Convention (1989
- Minimize generation of hazardous wastes - Control and reduce transboundary movements to protect human health and the environment.
The U.S. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA):
- - “Cradle-to-grave” concept of hazardous waste management by regulating generators, transporters, facilities, storage tanks, and oil products.
- - Defined toxic and/or hazardous waste by using the terms listed and characteristic waste.
**National Environmental Policy Act (1969
Designed to institutionalize a concern for the quality of the environment within the federal government.
Environmental Protection Agency (1970)
- - Established by the federal government to implement environmental statutes. Administrative functions empower EPA, the states, and the citizens to take responsibility in enforcing environmental programs.
- To date (till recently), environmental problems are considered local in space, time, and media.
- Regulation is focused on a command-and-control philosophy
- *Highly specialized legislation to meet very defined ends
- Winners and Losers
- Delayed Consequences
- National Vs. Regional Conflict
- Ambiguous Role for Science
Water availability vs. price
- Shortages of water and increasing purification costs have raised the price of domestic water in many parts of the world, and increased costs do tend to reduce use
- .- Many cities in China are setting quotas on water use that are enforced by higher prices for larger users
is excessive growth of algae and aquatic plants due to added nutrients
Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)
is the amount of oxygen required to decay a certain amount of organic matter.
Management and disposal of solid waste
- Source Reduction
Municipal solid waste:
- institutional wastes
Industrial solid waste
- demolition waste
- mostly organic and recyclable
- includes processing wastes (nutrient and pestacide rich)
waste after ore is recovered (leftovers)
Same plant type for cultivating and harvesting
rock and soil removed to obtain ore
amount of exposure an organism can withstand
is unpolluted fresh water, suitable for drinking
porous strata that water not taken up by plants accumulates in
Unconfined aquifer :
Top layer is saturated with water, called the water table
- Top and bottom layers impermeable to water
- Stored under high pressure
- Recharged by rain and surface water at recharge zone
area above water table, unsaturated. Water is at atmospheric pressure and is recharged by rainfall
Volatile Organic Compounds
compounds that evaporate readily and become air pollutants leads to production of secondary pollutants found in smog
In-stream water use
makes use of water in its channels and basins
increase in salinity due to increasing salt concentrations in soil
is removing water from an aquifer faster than it can be replenished
- It was the largest gathering of world leaders ever held.Major issues:
- The developed countries of the North have grown accustomed to lifestyles that are consuming a disproportionate share of natural resources and generating the bulk of global pollution.
- - Many of the developing countries of the South are consuming irreplaceable global resources to provide for their growing populations.
– Use of force against environmental resources in order to deprive populations of their benefits or to destroy other property
– Concept of rational consumption of scarce resources to benefit the environment and future generations